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Presentation on theme: "MAKING WEBSITES WORK FOR EVERYONE WEB UCLA Patrick Burke Lloyd Nicks."— Presentation transcript:


2 “the degree to which a product, device, service, or environment is available to as many people as possible” source: wikipedia WHAT DOES ‘ACCESSIBLE’ MEAN?

3 UCLA DISABILITY AWARENESS WEEK Disability Awareness week is in progress, with several events still open. Details are available on the UCLA Committee on Disability website at

4 Many years before he joined Google as a Director of Engineering, Ray Kurzweil invented much of the adaptive technology we use, including:  Optical Character Recognition (OCR)  Text to Speech  Speech recognition  Learning disability software MODERN DAY ACCESSIBILITY

5  Adaptive software development hasn’t been part of mainstream, so new tech often causes new problems, excluding groups of people almost at random;  Inclusive Design needs to be considered early in projects to ensure access for all;  Include testing by people with disabilities during a project. WHY IS ACCESSIBILITY IMPORTANT?

6 Many Legal risks associated with lack of accessibility:  Accessible alternatives must provide equivalent functionality. So if a website is inaccessible, any alternative must be available 24/7, from any location, etc.  An accessible website is almost always the most cost-effective and universal solution:  Cheaper than staffing a 24/7 call center, or providing a full-time assistant. ACCESSIBILITY LEGAL ISSUES

7  Organizations (like UCLA) can improve accessibility by purchasing accessible software, or programs that make it easy to produce accessible content.  Selecting commercial and open source applications with accessibility in mind (Drupal and other CMS options).  Including accessibility requirement as part of contracts with outsourced developers ACCESSIBILITY STRATEGY

8  Three levels of compliance documented by the WCAG 2.0  Level A  Level AA  Level AAA  UC Electronic Accessibility policy specifies WCAG AA as goal.  Level AA has broad international acceptance.  Balances what helps most users with what is achievable. ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS

9  blind user  low vision user  color blind user  deaf / hard of hearing user  user with dexterity/mobility disability  user with cognitive disability USER SCENARIOS

10 WHAT IS MISSING?  Tests for elements that can only be evaluated by a human.  Color Contrast  Captions  Navigation  Non technical assessment tools  Practical / Case based analysis

11 WHY QUICK TESTS?  AMP automated tests still show many items that require human judgment of accessibility (AMP scores show either 100% or 0% success)

12 QUICK TEST SCOPE  We aim to create a fast process to make many of those human-judgment assessments.  We do not attempt to show how to fix accessibility errors in this talk.

13 QUICK TESTS GOALS  Further prioritize the 21 Level A WCAG checkpoints. (Most can be checked by AMP.)  Do verifiable, repeatable tests for the 13 AA items (that mostly require human judgment).  Find simple, quick tests that can be applied to large amounts of content.

14 THE TESTS  Consistent Navigation  Color Contrast  Double-Size Test  Copy Test  Logical Structure  Focus Visible  Captions  Image Accessibility

15 CONSISTENT NAVIGATION  Maximum 5 min: Are there unusual changes to the navigation or other page components?  Things to check:  Consistency between Front page and secondary page navigation  Choose a common navigation element and use keyboard only to get there.

16  Run tests on 4-5 potential problem areas, concentrating on extreme cases requiring immediate fix.  WebAIM’s Jared Smith mention readability is a continuum.  Text at 4.4:1 isn’t suddenly totally illegible. So focus on the biggest problems. COLOR CONTRAST

17  Color Contrast Checking tools    Juicy Studio:  COLOR CONTRAST

18 DOUBLE SIZE TEST Except for captions and images of text, text can be resized without assistive technology up to 200 percent without loss of content or functionality. (Level AA)captionsimages of texttextassistive technology  Use CTRL-+ (CMD-+) to test whether the site is readable at 2x magnification.

19 COPY TEST  Browser/OS-level test  To test if images of text are being used, try copying any “suspicious” items.  WCAG: (1.4.5) Text that cannot be copied is likely to be inaccessible.

20 LOGICAL STRUCTURE - WCAG 2.4.6 Headings and Labels: Headings ands labels should describe topic or purpose. (Level AA)labels  Headings should not be used for visual effects, on large blocks of content.  Use judiciously (too much structure without content is a problem).

21 LOGICAL STRUCTURE  Are headings used for logical structure?  Does structure make sense?  Do not worry about skipping consecutive heading levels (even though it is a red flag in AMP).

22 VISIBLE FOCUS – WCAG 2.4.7 Any keyboard operable user interface has a mode of operation where the keyboard focus indicator is visible. (Level AA)  Is there a clear focus indicator when tabbing with keyboard.  On the homepage & 5 subpages, test focus by tabbing through the page.

23 CAPTIONS  Quantify & assess portion of content that is multimedia  Ensure controls are easy to identify and to enable captioning.  If significant in quantity or importance, play 30 sec of 3-5 clips  Are captions present?  Are they readable?

24 IMAGES  Survey Content: Appropriate Use of ALT text on Images  Check 3-5 random images (or prominent images) on a site for appropriateness of alt text.  Fail if several of those images have alt text = the filename.  Fail if significant amounts of text is embedded in images.  Fail if most images on the site have the same alt text

25 REFERENCES  UCLA Disabilities and Computing Program   Electronic Accessibility Leadership Team   SSB Bart Group AMP   WebAIM   W3c Easy Checks   BBC Mobile Accessibility Guidelines 0.8  ty/mobile_access.shtml ty/mobile_access.shtml

26  Testing  AMP   Wave   Validators   Color Contrast    Juicy Studio:  MOBILE ACCESSIBILITY RESOURCES

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