9A meniscus is the curve of the surface of the water in a graduated cylinder. Water "sticks" to the walls of the graduated cylinder, but only on the sides and not the middle. When you look at the surface, the water level is not straight – it’s curved like a smile.
10Measurement should be at the BOTTOM of the meniscus. Read the meniscus at eye level in to get an accurate reading. Read the meniscus at eye level.Read the volume here
11Volume of a regular solid object To measure the volume of a regular solid object (a cube or rectangular object), you multiply its length, width, and height.
12Volume of an Irregular Object The volume of an irregular object can be found by measuring displaced water in a graduated cylinder.
18Physical Properties (Fill in Spider) Ways to physically describe matter:densityphysical state (solid, liquid or gas at certain temperatures and pressures)colorodorsolubility in water (the ability of substance to dissolve in water)
19Some more examples of physical properties are: melting pointboiling pointhardnessmalleabilityconductivity
20Chemical PropertyA chemical property describes an object/substances’ ability to change into something new.FLAMMABILITYREACTIVITY
21Some examples of chemical properties are: paper burnsiron rustsgold does not rustwood rotsnitrogen does not burnsilver does not react with watersodium reacts with water
22In each of these, the substance's chemical property is its tendency to: reacttarnishcorrodeexplode
23Physical vs. Chemical Properties WoodPhysical Property:Grainy textureChemical Property:Flammable
24Physical vs. Chemical Properties Baking SodaPhysical Property:White powderChemical Property:Reacts with vinegar to produce bubbles
25Physical vs. Chemical Properties IronPhysical Property:Malleable (able to be shaped)Chemical Property:Reacts with oxygen to form rust
26DRAW IN NOTEBOOK Physical Chemical WoodBikeGasolinePennyMentos
28Physical Change Changes only the physical property of the substance An example of a physical change occurs when making a baseball bat. Wood is carefully crafted into a shape which will allow a batter to best apply force on the ball. Even though the wood has changed shape and therefore physical properties, the chemical nature of the wood has not been altered. The bat and the original piece of wood are still the same chemical substance.
30Ice melting: an example of physical change The material itself is the same before and after the change. The change CAN be “undone.”Ice melting: an example of physical changeIce melting: an example of physical change
31Chemical ChangeOccurs when one or more substances are changed into entirely NEW substancesThey have different properties from the original substanceSome signs (or evidence) of chemical change are:a gas is produced,the temperature changes,a substance disappears,a solid is formeda color change occurs,a new odor is produced.
32Examples of Physical and Chemical Changes Physical ChangesChemical ChangesAluminum foil is cut in half.Milk goes sour.Clay is molded into a new shape.Jewelry tarnishes.Butter melts on warm toast.Toast is burntWater evaporates from the surface of the ocean.Rust forms on a nail left outside.A juice box in the freezer freezes.Gasoline is ignited.Rubbing alcohol evaporates on your hand.Hydrogen peroxide bubbles in a cut. A stick is broke in two.Food scraps are turned into compost in a compost pile. A window is shattered.A match is lit. A car is wreckedYou take an antacid to settle your stomach. Hair is cutYour body digests food.
34Summing it Up Physical Change: Chemical Change: The matter is the same.The original matter can be recovered.The particles of the substance are rearranged.Chemical Change:The matter is different.The old matter is no longer present.The original matter cannot be recovered.
35Physical or Chemical Change? How do you know?(Fill in the sheet on page 66 for these examples)