Presentation on theme: "Essential reading: SPINČIĆ, A., An English Textbook For Marine Engineers I., Pomorski fakultet, Rijeka 2008. LUZER, J., SPINČIĆ, A., Gramatička vježbenica."— Presentation transcript:
Essential reading: SPINČIĆ, A., An English Textbook For Marine Engineers I., Pomorski fakultet, Rijeka 2008. LUZER, J., SPINČIĆ, A., Gramatička vježbenica engleskog jezika za pomorce, Pomorski fakultet, Rijeka 2003. Tomislav Skračić, MA Undergraduate English Course for MARINE ENGINEERS 1st Semester
Types of ships – 3 KEY WORDS P.&O. passenger ship- putnički brod kompanije "Pacific and Orient Lines" smart- elegantan, pametan RO-RO ship= roll on – roll off ship, brod za prijevoz tereta u vozilima raked bow- kosi, nagnuti pramac length (n.)- dužina amazing- čudesan vehicle (n.)- vozilo seaway (n.)- otvoreno more, morski plovni put converted- preinačen, prenamijenjen jolly convenient- vrlo pogodan, prikladan, zgodan sludge tanker- tanker za prijevoz mulja / otpadnih voda waterline (n.)- razina mora
Types of ships – 3 KEY WORDS bulbous bow- pramac s bulbom she's flying light- nisko gazi, ima mali gaz projection (n.)- izbočenje at the foot of- u podnožju stem (n.)- pramac, pramčana statva warning sign- znak upozorenja hull (n.)- trup make wash- stvarati pramčani val porpoise (n.)- pliskavica Lo and behold!- Vidi / gle čuda! recognition (n.)- prepoznavanje chip rust- tući rđu, "piketati" wield (v.)- rukovati, mahati
Lots of ships these days are built with a bulbous projection at the foot of the stem below the waterline. The bulbous bow makes the hull drive more easily through the water. The ships goes faster, uses less fuel, and makes much less wash. The bulbous bow also reduces pitching at heavy seas. Bulbous bow
RO-RO ships The cargo can be rapidly loaded and unloaded through stern or bow doors and sometimes side ports for smaller vehicles. There are clear, wide decks right down the full lenght of the ship. And there are ramps inside, to enable the vehicles to climb up to a higher deck. Ro ‑ Ro ships are not dependent on port facilities, such as cranes. The name comes from the initials of roll-on, roll-off. Ro-Ro vessels are designed for wheeled cargo.
Car carriers The car carriers are designed and built for carrying cars and other vehicles. They can transport over 6000 units. The vessel is constructed with two hydraulically-operated external stern ramps. One is a straight stern ramp, another one is a quarter stern ramp. This carrier is built with eight cargo decks in total. The navigating bridge is located at the bow.
Ferry Ferries provide a link in a transport system. They are a combination of the roll on/roll off and passenger vessels. The vessel has the lower machinery space, one or more car decks and the passenger accommodation. A large stern door and sometimes also a bow door provide access for the vehicles. Decks are connected by ramps. The passenger accommodation varies with length of the journey. The ferry is often fitted with stabilizers and bulbous bow to make sailing more comfortable and thrusters are used to improve manoeuvrability.
EXERCISES 1. Answer the following questions: a) Where does the name ro-ro come from? b) Why does the bow section of a ro-ro ship lift up? c) What differences are there among car ferries, car carriers and ro-ros? d) What is a sludge tanker? Where is it used? e) What is the purpose of a bulbous bow?
2. What types of ships do the diagrams show? Describe each ship: a) its purpose, b) its main structural features (typical size, arrangement of the superstructure, deck appliances, propulsion...)
THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE Study this text: The Boatswain has received a number of orders because of the storm. As soon as the Third Officer has come from his watch he goes to inspect the Boatswain’s work. - “Have you checked all lashings on deck and doubled them?”, he asks. - “No, I haven’t, not yet, sir,” answers the Boatswain. - “Have you secured all hatch covers?” - “Yes, I have indeed, sir. The deckhands have cleared away all loose gear from the deck. They have also tightened all the life boat gripes. Finally they have made sure that all the cranes are secure”, answers the Boatswain. The Boatswain has done a thorough job as always.
THE PRESENT PERFECT – Use The Perfect Tense expresses what someone has done or what has happened. It tells us about a period of time from the past until now. The result is still relevant now. EXAMPLES: Ante has worked for ACI for 10 years. ( = He started to work there 10 years ago and still works for ACI) We have lived here since 2010. ( = We started living here in 2010 and we still live here) A vessel has not entered the fairway. ( = The vessel isn’t in the fairway now) I have broken my leg. ( = I broke it yesterday or five minutes ago and the leg is still broken)
How to form THE PRESENT PERFECT the auxiliary verb HAVE + main verb (past participle). have / has + lived have / has + worked have / has + got have / has + been 1. I have worked. 2. You have worked. 3. He / She / It has worked. 1. We have worked. 2. You have worked. 3. They have worked.
THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE – Questions Questions are formed by reversing the order of the auxiliary and the main verb: EXAMPLES: The ship has entered the fairway. Has the ship entered the fairway? Ivica and Marica have lived here since 2010. How long have Ivica and Marica lived here? He has got three sisters. Has he got three sisters? How many sisters has he got?
THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE – Negations Auxiliary verb HAVE / HAS + not + main verb EXAMPLES: The ship has not entered the fairway. Ivica and Marica have not lived here since 2010. He has not got four sisters. NOTE: The short forms haven’t and hasn’t in everyday speech. They haven’t lived here since 2010. He hasn’t got four sisters.