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Communicative Language Teaching ( 交际语言教学 ) 广西师范学院初等教育学院蓝卫红.

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Presentation on theme: "Communicative Language Teaching ( 交际语言教学 ) 广西师范学院初等教育学院蓝卫红."— Presentation transcript:

1 Communicative Language Teaching ( 交际语言教学 ) 广西师范学院初等教育学院蓝卫红

2 Objectives  领会交际语言教学理念;  掌握交际教学语言教学特点、教学目标和 教学原则;  掌握运用信息差活动组织交际性操练。

3 Stage 1: Experience Step 1: Go through the following exercises and decide which one you would like to do. / Choose to do one the exercises. Exercise 1. Read the following dialogue in roles. A: Do you have a TV set in your room? B: No, I don’t. A: Do you have a computer? B: Yes, I do. How about you? A: I have a TV set, but I don’t have a computer.

4 Exercise 2: Read the above dialogue in roles and then Write down what you have or what you want to have in your own room. Use a dictionary when necessary. Don’t let others see what you have written. Guess what your group members have by using this sentence: “Do you have…in your room?” Give yourself a point if you get the right answer at the first guessing.

5 3. Read the above dialogue and then make sentences with “ Do you have…? 4. Read and recite the above dislogue.

6 Stage 2 Exploration 1. Which exercise would you like to do? Why? 2. Which exercise can promote your learning and sustain your interest in learning? Why? 3. What exercise may hinder your learning and can not keep you interested in the learning activities? Why ?

7 4. What objectives can be reached by involving the students in Exercise 2? 5. What principles should we follow when we design speaking activities for pupils to learn to use English?

8 Stage 3 Exchange 1.I would like to do Exercise ___ because _____. 2.Exercise _____ can promote my learning and sustain my interest in learning because _____ 3.Exercise ___ may hinder my learning and can not keep me interested in the learning activities because _____?

9 4. B y involving the students in Exercise 2, we can _____. 5. When designing tasks for pupils to learn to speak English, we should ____.

10  provide opportunities for active communicative interaction among students ( 提供机会让学生之间进行积 极的互动性交际活动 )  make language learning meaningful for the students.  encourage the students to use English in an authentic context

11 When we design speaking activities for pupils to learn to use English, we should try to make the activities:  learner-centered  Interactive  Meaning-focused  Collaborative  Purposeful  Task-based page 178

12 Communicative language learning( 交际语言教学 ) The Communicative Approach( 交际法 ) The Functional Approach ( 功能 法 )

13 Approach Theory of language The functional view of language is the primary one behind the communicative method, as well asThe functional view of language Theory of learning

14 Principles ---- activities that involve real communication promote learning ---- activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks promote learning ---- language that is meaningful to the learner promotes learning

15 Features ---- An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language. ---- The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation (Authentic material is a must, because students cannot extrapolate( 进行推断 ) to the real world from their learning on made-up material)

16 ---- The provision of opportunities for learners to focus not only on language, but also on the learning process itself. ---- An enhancement of the learner's own personal experience as important contributing elements to classroom learning..

17 ---- An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activation outside the classroom

18 The objectives of Communicative Language Teaching ---- students will learn to use language as a means of expression ---- students will use language as a means of expressing values and judgments ---- students will learn to express the functions that best meet their own communication needs.

19 Types of learning techniques and activities Communicative language teaching uses almost any activity that engages learners in authentic communication. The concept is supposed to be language teaching ideas, not an approach or method. ( 交际语言教学是一种教学理念, 而不是一种 有固定模式的教学法 )

20 Two major activity types: ---- functional communication activities( 功能性交际活动 ): ones aimed at developing certain language skills and functions, but which involve communication, and ---- social interaction activities( 社会交往 活动 ), such as conversation and discussion sessions, dialogues and role plays

21 Stage 4: Extension (1) Design learning activities for pupils to practise using the following sentences: 1. Do you like…? (sports) 2. Does he like…? (sports) 3. Can it …? / Does it have….(aninals) 4. Is it…? ( color and fruit)

22 Information gap activity In an information gap activity, one person has certain information that must be shared with others in order to solve a problem, gather information or make decisions (Neu & Reeser, 1997). Page 181-183

23 The characteristics of a successful speaking activity:  Learners talk a lot.  As much as possible of the period of time allotted to the activity is in fact occupied by the learner talking. (An important criteria for evaluating effective teaching)

24 Participation is even. Classroom discussion is not dominated by a minority of talkative participants: all get a chance to speak, and contributions are fairly evenly distributed.

25 Motivation is high. Learners are eager to speak: because they are interested in the topic and have something new to say about it, or because they want to contribute to achieving a task objective.

26 Language is of an acceptable level. Learners express themselves in utterances that are relevant, easily comprehensible to each other, and of an acceptable level of language accuracy. 王蔷:《小学英语教学法教 程》,P.182)

27 In what aspect can information gap activity satisfy the above? What should be the teacher’s role in the information gap activities?

28 Stage 4: Extension (2) Present and practice Topic: Shopping ---- We’ve got some.... ----- Have you got any …?

29 Lady: Oh, good morning. Grocer: Good morning. What can I do for you? Lady: Um… Have you got any coffee? Grocer: Yes, certainly. Here you are. Lady: Thank you. Um… What about butter? Grocer: Yes. We’ve got some butter. In the fridge over there. Lady: Good. Now, have you got any bread? Grocer: No, I’m sorry. We haven’t got any today. Come tomorrow morning.

30 Read different teaching cases and think: 1. Which one contains more features of communicative language teaching. 2. Which one can better facilitate learning?

31 Fragment A (Students have just read a text about Mrs Black and can see a picture in the book) Teacher: Right! Now, Mrs Black is in the supermarket. She’s shopping. She’s got a trolley. What’s in it? Lots of things. Listen! She’s got some butter. She hasn’t got any sugar. Some butter… any sugar. Some butter…any sugar. Some…any. Some… any.

32 Fragment A How do we use these words? Listen again! She’s got some bread. She hasn’t got any tea. She’s got some butter. She hasn’t got any sugar. Let’s see if you can do it. Marios! Butter. Marios: She’s got some butter. Teacher: Good! Theresa! Tea. Theresa: She hasn’t got some tea.

33 Fragment A Teacher: Um…. Is that right? Anna: No! She hasn’t got any tea. Teacher: Good, Anna. Again, Theresa! Theresa: She hasn’t got any tea. Teacher: Good! Now, when do we use some and when do we use any? Well, let’s look at it like this. ( He writes sentences on the blackboard. ) ------- not / n’t She’s got some bread. She hasn’t got any tea. She’s got some butter. She hasn’t got any sugar. Do you understand this?

34 Fragment A Students: Yes! Teacher: Good! Well, let’s try it with another word. Look at the picture. What’s in the trolley? Antonis, coffee. Antonis: She hasn’t got any coffee. Teacher: Good! Sofia, ice-cream. Sofia: She’s got some ice-cream.

35 Fragment A Teacher: Very good, Sofia! Do you all understand now? I think you do. Let’s try something else. Ask me a questions, Anna. Coffee. Anna: Has she got any coffee? Teacher: Good! Did she say some or any? Ask it again, Anna. Anna: Has she got any coffee? Students: Any. Teacher: Right! So we can now write up this...

36 Fragment B (The teacher shows the students a picture. ) Teacher: Tell me about this picture. Marios: It’s a shop. Teacher: Good ! Theresa: She is a woman. Teacher: There’s a woman, yes. Anna: Coffee… There’s coffee. Teacher: Yes? Antonis: There’s butter.

37 Teacher: Yes, we can see coffee, butter, bread, sugar. Can we see books in the picture? Students: No. Teacher: No, it isn’t a bookshop. It’s a grocer’s shop. Repeat, everybody! Grocer’s. Students: Grocer’s.

38 Teacher: (Writes the word on the board) In a grocer’s shop we can buy (shows them money ) …coffee, butter and things like that. What else can we buy? Marios: Tea? Teacher: Yes. Anna: Bread. Teacher: Yes.

39 ( Students go on giving examples using known vocabulary. When the run out of ideas, teacher shows flashcards of new items and teaches students the new words. )

40 Teacher: Right! Now, listen everybody. We are in a grocer’s shop. This (indicates teacher’s desk) is a grocer’s shop. Marios here is the shopkeeper. ( Laughter – teacher installs Marios behind the desk) Now, Marios. These are the things you’ve got in your shop (Hands him a list) OK? What have you got? Tell me one thing.

41 Marios: I’ve got coffee. Teacher: Fine. Now, all the rest of you are buying things. Here are your shopping lists. ( Hands out cards to each student) Right ! Who wants to begin? Anna? (Anna comes up to the desk.) Anna: Hullo. I want tea. Marios: No. No. I haven’t got tea. Sorry.

42 Anna: Oh, um… Have you got butter? Marios: Yes. How many you want? Anna: Two. Yes. Thank you. Teacher: Good. Sit down now, both of you. Now let’s listen to the tape. This lady is buying some things in the grocer’s.

43 More exploration What is more important for people who learn English? ----- Be able to make a lot of correct sentences or be able to use certain sentences in concrete situations, Competence and performance (语言能 力和语言表现)

44 Which is more effective? Why? 1. Teaching language usage, isolated from context. 2. Teaching a sentence when it is put to use for communicative puroposes. SIGNIFICATION and VALUE: 意义和价值

45 Extension 3 1. According to your own understanding, what language ability should we help the students to improve? 2. How should we transfer the teachcing ideas of communicative language teaching into our teaching practice?

46 First, we should keep in mind that our instructional objectives must be consistent with what is advocated by communicative languange teaching as well as those by the National English Curriculum.

47 We should foster the students’ ---- ability to produce correct sentences, or manifestations of the linguistic system ( 培养学生正确输出语言或识别语言表现形 式的能力) ---- ability to use the knowledge of the rules for effective communication ( 培养学生运用语言知识进行有效交流的能 力)

48 The objectives of Communicative Language Teaching ---- students will learn to use language as a means of expression ---- students will use language as a means of expressing values and judgments ---- students will learn to express the functions that best meet their own communication needs.

49 语言知识二级目标 功能 了解问候、告别、感谢、致歉、介绍、请 求等交际功能的基本表达形式。 话题 能理解和表达有关下列话题的简单信息 : 数 字、颜色、时间、天气、食品、服装、玩 具、动植物、身体、个人情况、家庭、学 校、朋友、文体活动、节日等。

50 二级说的目标 1 、能在口头表达中做到发音清楚、语调达 意; 2 、能就所熟悉的个人和家庭情况进行简短 对话; 3 、能运用一些最常用的日常套语 ( 如问候、 告别、致谢、致歉等 ) ; 4 、能在教师的帮助下讲述简单的小故事。

51 二级读的目标 1 、能认读所学词语; 2 、能根据拼读的规律,读出简单的单词; 3 、能读懂教材中简短的要求或指令; 4 、能看懂贺卡等所表达的简单信息; 5 、能借助图片读懂简单的故事或小短文, 并养成按意群阅读的习惯; 6 、能正确朗读所学故事或短文。

52 Second we should try to design learning activities emboding the main characteristics of communicative langauge teaching.

53  learner-centered  Interactive  Meaning-focused  Collaborative  Purposeful  Task-based (王蔷:《小学英语教学法教程》, P178)

54 Stage 4: Extension 4 1.Design learning activities of presentation, drilling and communicative activities based on the topic you have chosen as the content of your teaching pack. 2.Micro- teaching.

55 Stage 5: Evaluation 1.From the topic of “communicative language teaching”, I have learned that____. I still want to know more about_____. 2.Key words for further study: 交际法 / 功能法 交际语言教学 / 学生英语交际能力的培养 师生互动

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