Presentation on theme: "conditioned inhibition. an orienting response. habituation."— Presentation transcript:
1conditioned inhibition. an orienting response. habituation. Cate hears a funny ticking sound when she presses the gas pedal in her car. She hasn't noticed it before and she turns off the radio and leans forward in order to hear it better. Cate's shift in attention illustrates the behaviour that psychologists refer to as:desensitization.conditioned inhibition.an orienting response.habituation.
2stimulus generalization. shaping. habituation. sensitization. A month ago the Cavanaugh family brought a new kitten home. Every time anyone made any sound or went to touch the kitten while it was eating, the kitten would scurry away. Now, the children can play right next to the kitten while it is eating and the kitten doesn't seem to notice. The kitten's change in responsiveness illustrates the learning process known as:stimulus generalization.shaping.habituation.sensitization.
3In classical conditioning, an environmental event that only elicits an observable reaction after training or experience is referred to as:a conditioned stimulus.an unconditioned response.a conditioned response.an unconditioned stimulus.
4Lionel's increased heart rate as the car slipped on the icy road. Lionel never used to worry about driving in the snow until he skidded off the highway one morning during a heavy snowfall. As the back end of the car started to fishtail Lionel's heart started to race and he became terrified. Now he finds that just getting into his car when there is snow falling causes him to become extremely agitated. In this example of classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is:the agitation that Lionel feels when he gets into the car on snowy days.Lionel's increased heart rate as the car slipped on the icy road.getting into the car when there is snow falling.the car sliding on the icy roadway.
5Research has shown that the most effective classical conditioning association will form when the unconditioned stimulus occurs:soon after the unconditioned response.just before the conditioned response.soon after the conditioned stimulus.just before the conditioned stimulus.
6an unconditioned response. a conditioned response. Nicolaus and Nellis used classical conditioning to develop a taste aversion in mongooses. They allowed the animals to eat eggs that had been laced with carboachol, which caused the animals to become ill. Later, the mongooses showed an aversion to eggs. In this example of classical conditioning, the taste of the eggs was:an unconditioned response.a conditioned response.an unconditioned stimulus.a conditioned stimulus.
7In classical conditioning, second-order conditioning occurs when: a novel stimulus produces a response that is different from the response produced by a conditioned stimulus.a conditioned response develops that is opposite to the unconditioned response.an established conditioned stimulus is used to condition a second neutral stimulus.an unconditioned response develops that is opposite to the conditioned response.
8stimulus generalization. aversive conditioning. In classical conditioning, when a novel stimulus produces a response that is different from the response that already occurs to a conditioned stimulus, the process that is at work is referred to as:stimulus generalization.aversive conditioning.conditioned inhibition.stimulus discrimination.
9In classical conditioning, extinction refers to: learning that an event signals the absence or non-occurrence of the unconditioned stimulusa procedure which uses an established conditioned stimulus to condition a response to a second, neutral stimulusa loss of responding that results from the repeated presentation of a conditioned stimulus without an unconditioned stimulusthe return of a conditioned response that had been extinguished, after a period of non-exposure to the conditioned stimulus
10Conditioned inhibition is: the return of a conditioned response that had been extinguished, after a period of non-exposure to the conditioned stimulus.a loss of responding that results from the repeated presentation of a conditioned stimulus without an unconditioned stimulus.learning that an event signals the absence or non-occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus.a procedure which uses an established conditioned stimulus to condition a response to a second, neutral stimulus.
11Every time Harriet cried her mother would immediately pick her up Every time Harriet cried her mother would immediately pick her up. Now Harriet is a real crybaby. Based on what is known about operant conditioning, you should conclude that, for Harriet, being picked up acted as:a conditioned stimulus for crying.a negative reinforcer for crying.a positive reinforcer for crying.an unconditioned stimulus for crying.
12In operant conditioning, escape conditioning occurs when an animal or person learns that a response will:have no consequences.produce some type of unpleasant event or stimulus.terminate some type of unpleasant event or stimulus.prevent some type of unpleasant event or stimulus.
13In operant conditioning, avoidance conditioning occurs when an animal or person learns that a response will:have no consequences.terminate some type of unpleasant event or stimulus.produce some type of unpleasant event or stimulus.prevent some type of unpleasant event or stimulus.
14negative reinforcement. negative punishment. positive punishment. According to the theory of operant conditioning, when the removal of a stimulus, after a response has occurred, decreases the likelihood of the response occurring again, the process is referred to as:negative reinforcement.negative punishment.positive punishment.positive reinforcement.
15conditioned stimulus for coming to work late. Kim used to arrive late for work nearly every day, and finally her boss fired her. She has since gotten a new job and she makes sure she arrives at work on time. Based on what is known about operant conditioning, you should conclude that, for Kim, losing her job acted as a:conditioned stimulus for coming to work late.positive punisher for coming to work late.negative punisher for coming to work late.negative reinforcer for coming to work late.
16variable-interval schedule. fixed-interval schedule. With operant conditioning, if a response will only be reinforced after a specified, unchanging number of responses have previously been made, the reinforcement schedule that is in place is referred to as a:variable-interval schedule.fixed-interval schedule.variable-ratio schedule.fixed-ratio schedule.
17variable-interval schedule. variable-ratio schedule. Elsie's mail arrives at the same time every day. For two weeks, while Elsie was waiting for her tax refund, she kept looking out the window to see if the mail had arrived. Based on what is known about schedules of reinforcement, you should conclude that Elsie's behaviour of "watching for the mail" was being reinforced based on a:variable-interval schedule.variable-ratio schedule.fixed-ratio schedule.fixed-interval schedule.
18fixed-interval schedule. variable-interval schedule. Karl has been trying to reach Myra for 45 minutes, but her phone is busy. He redials every few minutes, but he still hasn't been able to get through. Based on what is known about schedules of reinforcement, you should conclude that Karl's redialing is being reinforced based on a:fixed-interval schedule.variable-interval schedule.variable-ratio schedule.fixed-ratio schedule.
19observational learning. classical conditioning. operant conditioning. Based on Albert Bandura's view of learning, when we learn about the potential consequences of a behavioural response, without directly experiencing the consequences for ourselves, the process that is at work is referred to as:observational learning.classical conditioning.operant conditioning.latent learning.
20systematic desensitization. vicarious punishment. In learning theory, when a behavioural response becomes weaker after an individual observes a model being punished for the same behaviour, the process at work is referred to as:systematic desensitization.vicarious punishment.second-order conditioning.vicarious reinforcement.