Presentation on theme: "Stop Aquatic Hitchhikers"— Presentation transcript:
1Stop Aquatic Hitchhikers Aquatic Invasive Species including quagga and zebra mussels and others can be spread during work that is conducted in the natural environment. It is important because this workshop is about conducting work where there is a potential to spread invasive species.
2Examples of Invasive Plants in California Water HyacinthHydrillaEurasian WatermilfoilGiant SalviniaBrazilian ElodeaArundoSpongeplantMany invasive plants out-compete young willows, sycamores, cottonwoods, and other native plants for space and nutrients. They have deep tap roots to more effectively obtain water. Our native fauna have a difficult time adapting to such alterations to native environments. When invasive plants take over, the results can be devastating for many native plants and the wildlife that depends them.
3Characteristics of Invasive Plants Clog lakes & waterwaysInterferes with commerce and recreationDisplace native plantsClogs water diversions and pumpsDepletes dissolved oxygen levelsIncrease sedimentationCan cause flooding
4New Invader: South American spongeplant Many seeds & small seedlings move easily.Spongeplant mixed with duckweed. Red circles show spongeplant seedlings.Seeds survive at least three years.
5New Invader: South American spongeplant It chokes out everything.2003 first California infestation found in Redding and Arcata.Out competes several other aggressive water weeds, like water primrose and parrots feather
7It’s really starting to spread 2003: First records were in Arcata and Redding. 2007: San Joaquin River in Fresno. Antioch in Sacramento River, but seemed to disappear after a storm. 2008: Found in a canal off the Kings River east of Fresno and canals in western Fresno County & 2010, it was again found in the Delta.
8But maybe we can beat it. To report plants or find out about surveys: Before treatmentAfter treatmentLeft: Spongeplant in a canal in western Fresno County. Right: The same canal two weeks after treatment. Spongeplant spreads easily but it is relatively easy to control, if it hasn’t had time to make a lot of seeds.HELP THE EFFORT!The California Department of Food and Agriculture will be surveying in 2011 to find out how much spongeplant has spread. You can help by reporting finds or having your stream, pond, or canals checked. And thanks.For more information:To report plants or find out about surveys:Patrick Akers at
9Examples of Invasive Fauna Species Asian ClamChinese Mitten CrabNew Zealand MudsnailFlorida Watersnake (Nerodia)Asian CarpBriefly go over a few faunal species too.
10Asian Clam (Corbicula fluminea) Introduced in 1800’s for human consumptionHigh densities, out-competes native clamsImpairs water delivery systems by clogging pipes, valves and sprinklersTraps sediment, forms bars in agriculture canals, alters flowBioaccumulation of toxinsCorbicula – very common throughout the west, this is a freshwater clam.Corbula – S.F Found in higher salinities, it is one of the likely contributors to the Pelagic Organism Decline in the SF Bay-Delta. It filter feeds on excessive amounts of water removing organisms and phytoplankton at the base of the food web.
11Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) Intentional releases for human consumption and/or via ballast waterClog fish salvage facilitiesCreate losses for fisheriesReduced catchDamages fishing netsThreatens levee stabilityPotential host for human lung flukeMost of you may remember when this invader caused quite the media sensation in 1999 when it completely overwhelmed the state and federal fish salvage facilities. Very efficient at burrowing and the host of a human lung fluke, we have had few reports of this invader over the last few years. Germany was invaded by this species in the early 1900s and since then they have experienced roughly 15 yr cycles of boom and bust periods. We don’t know what may happen here.
12New Zealand Mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) From New Zealand750,000 NZMS per square meterCompetes for space and foodTies up nutrients – not digestible by most fish or birds, shell takes a long time to decomposeShells block pipes, filters and gratesThis is another aquatic organism that seems to be spreading all over the west. Seems to show up in trophy trout streams, so it is theorized that it is spread mostly during fishing activities. It is most amazing for the sheer numbers of snails have been documented in a single square meter. Quite small there are issues with spotting this snail and accurate identification. You can see on the map the known distribution.Ken DavisDistribution of the New Zealand mudsnail in California.
13Southern Watersnake (Nerodia fasciata) Native to southeastern USThreat to CA native and federally listed giant garter snake (Thamnophis gigas)We have known about this invader for several years now. There are two populations in California, one in the Folsom area and another in so. CA. We have serious concerns about the impact it may have to the giant gartersnake because of the overlap in distribution with the Folsom population.
14Asian Carp (Black Silver and Bighead) Reach extremely high population densitiesImpact populations of native mussels and snails (black carp)Potentially deplete zooplankton populations (silver and bighead)Need to look up the current information on the Great Lakes situation and the upcoming Supreme Court Decision
17Pathways of Introduction How do they get here: AquariaAquacultureBallastIntentional StockingRecreationalEnvironmentalFood (seafood)GardeningThe pathways by which NIS arrive to new locations are quite varied as well. These are some of the most common.Aquaria – from releases in the aquarium trade. Someone buys has an invasive plants in their tank and dump the tankAquaculture – Farms that produce invasive species, the atlantic salmon and the waterflea is an exampleBallast – Water is picked up in one area and then released in anotherIntentional Stocking – for recreation, environmental, or food. eastern brook trout and rainbow trout are examples of this. 60,000 signal crayfish traveled from Tahoe to Sweden. Also potentially the Chinese mitten crabGardening – Both landscaping and aquascaping can contribute to the pathway as plants that are brought in from overseas.
18Natural Resource Management Activities PathwaysNatural Resource Management ActivitiesInvasive Species MonitoringFisheries SurveysWater MonitoringTerrestrial SurveysRestorationThere are many activities that are potentially pathways for spreading invasive species. The monitoring that is the focus of this workshop is one of these pathways. Upper right corner is a survey for nzms. Lower left is chinese mitten crab. Lower right is san justo. The pathways is that the gear may be carring an invasive species. Many of the species that we are concerned about
19Natural Resource Management Activities PathwaysNatural Resource Management ActivitiesInvasive Species MonitoringFisheries SurveysWater MonitoringTerrestrial SurveysRestorationRestate that there are many potential pathways. On click the invasive species will show up and the list will fade. This is a good time to state that the invasive species can act as hitchhikers on sampling equipment, personal gear, shoes, clothing, or anything that you intend to take with you as you move from site to site.
20Control of Invasive Species with Best Management Practices DecontaminationHazard Analysis and Critical Control Point PlanningThese terms are used to familiarize the audience with control strategies. Best management practices are the broadest term and will include HACCP, decontamination, changes in protocol or any combination of these tools. HACCP is a tool to reduce
21HACCP Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Planning Tool that manages the risk of moving non-targetsRisk assessment of potential pathwaysInvasive Species Risk Assessment and Planning is a tool that manages the risk of moving non-targets (non-target = anything that you are not intending on moving from one place to the next) in natural resource management activities.The first step in the risk management process is to conduct a risk assessment of potential pathways (A pathway is the movement of non-targets). The risk assessment determines the significance of potentially moving species to an area where they may become invasive. Once it is determined that a pathway poses a significant risk, then a plan is implemented to reduce this risk.The plan is created using the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) planning process as a framework.Why talk about HACCP As part of campaigns to help prevent the spread of invasive by increasing awareness, HACCP has become a recognizable brand. HACCP training workshops, a website, and an international standard have been created. The HACCP process takes advantage of this pre-existing HACCP brand and planning process (with a few modifications) and combines them with the risk assessment to create a tool that is focused on preventing the spread of invasive species.
22HACCPRisk assessment determines the likelihood of moving species to an area where they may become invasive.This process assumes that the impact of any invasive species introduction is significantThe first step in the risk management process is to conduct a risk assessment of potential pathways (A pathway is the movement of non-targets). The risk assessment determines the significance of potentially moving species to an area where they may become invasive. Once it is determined that a pathway poses a significant risk, then a plan is implemented to reduce this risk.
23HACCPOnce it is determined that a pathway poses a significant risk, then a plan is implemented to reduce this risk.Utilize the HACCP planning process framework.Once it is determined that a pathway poses a significant risk, then a plan is implemented to reduce this risk.The plan is created using the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) planning process as a framework.
24The risk of a hazard is reduced by means of a control measure. Easy five step toolDefines the critical point in a given activity whereby the risk of a hazard can be reduced to an acceptable level.The risk of a hazard is reduced by means of a control measure.This control measure is then evaluatedfive step tool to reduce the risk of spreading invasive species and other non-targets (non-target = anything that you are not intending on moving from one place to the next) in human related pathways (pathway = A pathway is the movement of non-targets). This tool defines the critical point in a given activity whereby the risk of a hazard (hazard = non-target or invasive species movement) can be reduced to an acceptable level.At this critical control point, the risk of a hazard is reduced by means of a control measure.This control measure is then evaluated to ensure that the control measure is operating as intended.
25Best Management Practices Decontamination Decontaminate after each survey.
26DecontaminationDecontamination – also known as a control measure or best management practice. These are techniques that are use to remove invasive species from the pathways that were presented earlier in the presentation.
28Decontamination Methods: Drying Chemical (Soak or Spray and Brush) Sparquat, Bleach, Quat, Virkon,409 Degreaser, Vinegar…FreezingWaterWater pressureHot waterrinsingMethods:DryingChemicalSparquat, Bleach, quat, virkon, 409 Degreaser,FreezingWaterWater pressureHot waterrinsing
29DecontaminationMany agencies have developed decontamination practices. There are some reccomended procedures in the Oregon Seagrant NZMS brochure. Let us know if you’d like some of the other resources.
30Contact us if you’d like to set up an HACCP workshop Your help is neededContact us if you’d like to set up an HACCP workshopJonathan Thompson$#&*!