Presentation on theme: "IS465: Adv. Info. Sys. Problem Solving"— Presentation transcript:
1 IS465: Adv. Info. Sys. Problem Solving Min SongInformation Systems Dept.
2 What is a “Problem?”How do people approach and solve problems?What are the major obstacles to problem solving?
3 The problem has already been identified. Now try to “understand” it. PreparationThe problem has already been identified.Now try to “understand” it.well-defined to ill-defined, depending on nature of problem and perceived info requirements
4 Kinds of Problems Arrangement Inducing structure Transformation rearrange or recombine elements to satisfy criterionanagrams, jigsawsInducing structureidentify the relationship among elements, construct a new relationship“what comes next in the series...”Transformationuse methods to get from current state to goal stateTower of Hanoi
5 Missionaries&Cannibals “Five missionaries and five cannibals are initially on the left bank of a river, with a rowboat having a maximum capacity of three persons. The task is to find a sequence of crossings that will leave all ten persons on the right bank. No missionaries may ever be left with a larger number of cannibals (on either bank or in the boat), for the cannibals would overpower and eat the missionaries).”
6 Missionaries & Cannibals What kind of problem is this?What is the solution?as you work it out, either “think out loud” (make an audio recording of your verbalization) or “think in writing” (take notes on the various options/steps you consider).
8 A New Ordering System for Girl Scout Cookies Problem: Inefficient manual procedures, high error rate.Solutions: Eliminate manual procedures, design new ordering process, and implement database building software to batch and track orders automatically and schedule order pickups.QuickBase for Corporate Workgroups software service increased efficiency and reduced errors.Demonstrates IT’s role in updating traditional business processes.Illustrates digital technology as the focus of designing and building new information systems.
9 A New Ordering System for Girl Scout Cookies Interactive Session: Girl Scout CookiesThink of a time when you were charged with the task of selling a productHow did you keep track of your orders?How did you keep track of your inventory?What were some of the weaknesses of your methods?How could information systems have improved your transaction and supply chain processes?
10 Problem Solving and Systems Development New information systems are built as solutions to problemsFour steps to building an information systemDefine and understand the problemDevelop alternative solutionsChoose the best solutionImplement the solutionThe first three steps are called systems analysis
11 Problem Solving and Systems Development Developing an Information System SolutionDeveloping an information system solution is based on the problem-solving process.
12 Problem Solving and Systems Development Defining and Understanding the ProblemWhat caused the problem?Why does it persist?Why hasn’t it been solved?What are the objectives of a solution?Information requirements
13 Problem Solving and Systems Development Developing Alternative SolutionsPaths to a solution determined by systems analysisSome solutions do not require an information systemSome solutions require modification of existing systemsSome solutions require new systems
14 Problem Solving and Systems Development Evaluating and Choosing SolutionsFeasibility issuesCosts and benefitsAdvantages and disadvantagesBusiness value of systemsChange management
15 Problem Solving and Systems Development Implementing the Solution Systems designCompleting implementationHardware selection and acquisitionSoftware development and programmingTestingTraining and documentationConversionProduction and maintenanceManaging the change
16 Problem Solving and Systems Development Interactive Session: Problem SolvingThink of a problem you recently attempted to solveHow did you define the problem?What solutions were available to you?Which solution did you choose? Why?How did you implement the solution?What changes resulted from implementing the solution? How did you manage these changes?
17 Understanding the Business Value of Systems and Managing Change Making the Business Case for a New SystemFinancial issuesTangible benefitsIntangible benefitsCapital budgeting methodsNonfinancial issuesStrategic advantagesInformation systems planPortfolio analysisScoring model
18 Understanding the Business Value of Systems and Managing Change A System PortfolioCompanies should examine their portfolio of projects in terms of potential benefits and likely risks. Certain kinds of projects should be avoided altogether and others developed rapidly. There is no ideal mix. Companies in different industries have different information systems needs.
19 Understanding the Business Value of Systems and Managing Change New System ChallengesUser interface designCosts to implement or runUser involvement and influenceUser-designer communications gapManagement support and commitmentLevel of complexity and riskQuality of project management
20 Understanding the Business Value of Systems and Managing Change Managing Change SuccessfullyOutsourcing and external consultantsFormal planning and control toolsUser education and trainingErgonomicsOrganizational impact analysis
21 Alternative Systems-Building Approaches Purchasing Solutions: Application Software Packages and OutsourcingRequest for Proposal (RFP)Application software packagesGeneralized systems for universal functions with standard processesCustomizationOutsourcingApplication service providers (ASPs)Offshore outsourcing
22 Alternative Systems-Building Approaches Rapid Application Development for E-BusinessAgility and scalabilityRapid application development (RAD)Creating workable systems in a very short period of timeJoint application design (JAD)End users and information systems specialists working together on design
23 Modeling and Designing Systems: Structured and Object-Oriented Methodologies Structured methodologiesData flow diagramProcess specificationsStructure chartObject-oriented developmentBased on concepts of class and inheritanceComponent-based development and Web servicesComputer-aided software engineering (CASE)
24 Modeling and Designing Systems: Structured and Object-Oriented Methodologies Class and InheritanceThis figure illustrates how classes inherit the common features of their superclass.