Presentation on theme: "The Bionic Eye JON GOLDBERG, BME 181 SECTION 3. The Problem The Photoreceptor ◦Photoreceptors signal the presence of light in the visual field. ◦Rods:"— Presentation transcript:
The Bionic Eye JON GOLDBERG, BME 181 SECTION 3
The Problem The Photoreceptor ◦Photoreceptors signal the presence of light in the visual field. ◦Rods: Low light, no color detection. ◦Cones: Light required, three types of cones produce the perception of color when combined. Degeneration ◦Retinitis Pigmentosa: Loss of photoreceptors, both rods and cones, in the back of the eye. ◦Macular Degeneration: Age and genetic related. ◦Caused by atrophy of epithelial layer in retina or abnormal blood vessel growth. ◦Causes 30% of all eye-related problems ages 75 to 85.
Types of Bionic Eyes Argus II ◦Uses external components to “amplify” what it seen, has a camera. Alpha IMS ◦Uses implants in brain to bypass retina and hook into optical nerve. Harvard ◦Externally worn glasses that amplify what it seen, same as the Argus II.
Argus IIAlpha IMS
The Alpha IMS Extremely new technology. No external components besides the battery. No camera is used, unlike the Argus II. ◦3x3m microchip in retina captures a visual resolution of 1500 pixels. ◦Microchip bypasses damaged photoreceptors, uses natural eye to “see” ◦Placement of microchip allows the middle layer of the retina to do it’s processing of input. ◦Allows movement of eye to look around, rather than the entire head. Allows users to see black and white details. ◦The brighter the object, the more it shows up. ◦Cars and water, when reflected upon by the sun, was the most visible to those participating.
The Study and Problems Nine people were used in the first pilot human trial. ◦Eight were successful trials. The ninth had complications during implementation, in which the optic nerve was accidently touched during surgery, making the user invalid for the trial. ◦All those who were successful with implant reported success in viewing objects and shapes. ◦Large and very observable details were noticed by those with the device. ◦When light reflected off objects, the users could detect those objects much more. Very early in trial. Just got the go for more trials in Hong Kong and the UK. ◦The emulated photoreceptors work better with extreme light. Low light levels makes it near impossible to see. ◦Complicated surgery. Eye is opened for the microchip placement, and the receiver is placed deep in the brain. ◦Hooks into natural processes, requires effort in reverse engineering biological methods.
More Problems Extremely new technology. The science journal published with the trial findings was only in February ◦There hasn’t been a lot of criticism about the device other than light reception problems. It is still unknown of the long-term function and stability of the device. ◦Hong Kong and UK trials will specifically look at this. This method of visual prosthesis relies on a semi-functioning eye. ◦If the user is plagued with more than just photoreceptor degeneration, this method will not work. ◦Meaning, optic nerve and pre-photoreceptor components need to still work. There are still external components. The Alpha IMS goal is to remove all external requirements. ◦This would involve getting a battery somewhere in the body to power the microprocessor.
References 1."Artificial Vision with Wirelessly Powered Subretinal Electronic Implant Alpha-IMS." Artificial Vision with Wirelessly Powered Subretinal Electronic Implant Alpha-IMS (2013): n. pag. Artificial Vision with Wirelessly Powered Subretinal Electronic Implant Alpha-IMS. 20 Feb Web. 30 Mar Ostrovsky, Gene. "Retinal Implant Alpha IMS Brings Sight to Blind in New Study (w/video)." Retinal Implant Alpha IMS Brings Sight to Blind in New Study (w/video). MedGadget, 21 Feb Web. 30 Mar Soupporis, Aaron. "The Verge." The Verge. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Mar