Presentation on theme: "Scientific writing Field report – Grimsmoen/Atnadalen GEG2130: Oct. 2007."— Presentation transcript:
Scientific writing Field report – Grimsmoen/Atnadalen GEG2130: Oct. 2007
Outline Title (Abstract) Introduction Methods Results/Observations Discussion Conclusion(s) References http://www.biochem. arizona.edu/marc/Sci -Writing.pdfhttp://www.biochem. arizona.edu/marc/Sci -Writing.pdf http://www.columbia. edu/cu/biology/ug/re search/paper.htmlhttp://www.columbia. edu/cu/biology/ug/re search/paper.html Search for ”Scientific writing” on Google.
Title Straight to the point –Use the fewest possible words; avoid words like “A study of…”, “Investigations of…”, “Observations on…” etc. Concise Informative –If limited to a specific region, name the region in the title.
Abstract Optional Summarizes the paper in a few sentences –App. 100-250 words The scientific problem is presented, along with the most important results and conclusions.
Introduction Previous studies and findings on the subject or in the area is presented An introduction to the study area is given The scientific problem is formulated (often completed or re-written after the discussion and the conclusion(s) is finished)
Methods The methods chosen to address the scientific problem formulated in ”Introduction” is described. –Was samples collected? From where? How was the samples treated after returning from the field? –Was the study based on observations in the field? What did you look for, and why? Could you have ignored important things? –Based on what was your methods chosen? … any uncertainties given by the chosen methods?
Results/Observations What is the most important findings or observations in the study? –Give a neutral presentation of your findings –Small discussions directly concerning interpretation of the results or observations can be done in this chapter. –Any new questions? –New or undescribed uncertainties?
Discussion More superior discussions concerning the findings given in “Results” is done. –How can your findings contribute to an increased understanding of the studied object? –Try to put your results together with earlier findings; have you discovered anything that has not been described by other authors? –What could be a natural next step in your study (new questions)? Results that hasn’t been introduced earlier in the report should not be presented here.
Conclusion(s) Summarizes the most important results and discussions earlier presented. Nothing that has not been clearly stated in ”Results/Observations” or ”Discussion” will be mentioned here. No discussions or interpretations of results is done.
References In-text citing: … Grimsmoen is a glacio-fluvial delta (Holmsen, 1915; Gjessing, 1960). … Interpretations done by Nesje and Dahl (2003) … … According to IPCC (2001) … Reference list: Gjessing, J. (1960) Isavsmeltingstidens drenering, dens forløp og formdannende virkning i Nordre Atnedalen: med sammenlignende studier fra Nordre Gudbrandsdalen og Nordre Østerdalen. Ad novas: Norwegian geographical studies. 492 pp. Holmsen, G. (1915) Brædæmte sjøer i Nordre Østerdalen. Norges geologiske undersøkelse. 211 pp. IPCC (2001) Climate Change 2001: Synthesis report. Summary for ploicymakers. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes. http://ipcc.ch/pub/syreng/spm.pdf 16.11.2006.http://ipcc.ch/pub/syreng/spm.pdf Nesje, A. and Dahl, S.-O. (2003) The “Little Ice Age” – only temperature? The Holocene, 13, 139-145. Not to cite in the text is cheating!
Other things… Use a passive voice in your report: –Avoid “I think…”, “We observed that…”, instead use phrases like “Based on observations in the field, one interpretation is that…”, “A decision was made to…”, “The report was read by…” etc. Be neutral in descriptions: –Avoid words that express a subjective impression (very, extremely, …)
Helpful advices EndNote: –Reference program available on all computers in the University (or can be downloaded to your personal computer for free) Libraries: –http://ask.bibsys.no/ask/action/resources?lang=en : library database, both printed and electronic resources is searhable.http://ask.bibsys.no/ask/action/resources?lang=en –http://x-port.uio.no: searches for international scientific databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, GeoRef…), electronic journals etc.http://x-port.uio.no