2True/False Freezing foods kills bacteria As long as the expiration date hasn’t passed, packaged food is always safe to eatYou can wash pesticides off produce with plain water
3AnswersFalse. Freezing foods doesn’t kill bacteria, but puts them at a dormant state. Once the food is thawed, bacteria growth resumeFalse. Package date refers to food quality not safetyTrue. A good scrub with cold running water and a vegetable brush can remove pesticide residue and many germs from the produce
4Food Safety What Is Food Safety and Why Is It Important? Food safety practices and guidelines established to ensure the safety of foods from farm to tableU.S. enjoys one of safest food supplies in worldCDC estimate 76 Millions people experience some type of foodborne illness annuallyAbout 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,200 deathsUpton Sinclair’s 1906 book The Jungle led to Meat Inspection ActFood safety precautions led to positive health effects in the U.S.
5Food SafetyWhat Causes Foodborne Illness and How Can It Make You Sick?Foodborne illnesses are often caused by:Pathogens (virus and bacteria).Can be spread by fecal-to-oral transmissionSalmonella is the most common pathogenParasites: microscopic organisms that take nourishment from hostsChemical agents such as pesticides and toxins in foods we eat also cause illness.
6Food Safety High Risk population Older adults young children pregnant womenthose with compromised immune systems
7What Can You Do to Prevent Foodborne Illness? Practice “4 Cs” of food safety:Clean your hands and produce.Hands: hot soapy water with agitation for at least twenty secondsSanitize cutting boards, spongesWash fruits and vegetables under cold running water, scrub firm skins with vegetable brush
8What Can You Do to Prevent Foodborne Illness? 2. Combat cross-contamination.Keep raw meat, poultry, fish separate from other foods during preparation, storage, and transport3. Cook foods thoroughly.Color not reliable indicator: measure internal temperature
9What Can You Do to Prevent Foodborne Illness? 4. Chill foods at a low enough temperature.Bacteria multiply rapidly between 40o – 140o FKeep hot foods hot: above 140o FKeep cold foods below 40o F: perishables shouldn’t be left more than two hoursKeep leftovers no more than four days in refrigerator, raw meats two daysFreezer temperature: at or below 0o F
11Foodborne Illness Food Safety in the Kitchen Safe Handling of Meats and PoultryCook meat thoroughly and use a thermometer.Read labeling instructions.Recommended safe temperaturesWhole poultry: 180˚ FPoultry breast and well-done meats: 170˚ FStuffing, ground poultry, and reheated leftovers: 165˚ FMedium-done meats, raw eggs, egg dishes, pork, and ground meat: 160 ˚FMedium-rare meats, roasts, veal, and lamb: 145˚ FFoods should not be kept between 40˚ F and 140˚ F for more than 2 hoursRefrigerator temperature: 40˚ FFreezer temperature: 0˚ F
13Figure 19.4: Recommended Safe Temperatures (Fahrenheit). Bacteria multiply rapidly at temperatures between 40° and 140°F. Cook foods to the temperatures shown on this thermometer and hold them at 140°F or higher.Fig. 19-4, p. 669
14Foodborne Illness Occasionally unsafe Rarely unsafe Soft cheeses Salad bar itemsUnwashed berries and grapesSandwichesHamburgersRarely unsafePeeled fruitHigh-sugar foodsSteaming-hot foods
15Advances in Food Safety Pasteurization since early 1900sIrradiation – (cold pasteurization) use of low dose irradiation protects consumers from foodborne illnesses. Minimal vitamin is lost.Control mold in grainsSterilizing spices and teas for storage at room temperatureControl insectsExtend shelf life of produceDestroy harmful bacteria in fresh and frozen beef, poultry, lamb and pork
16This international symbol, called the radura, indentifies retail foods that have been irradiated. The words “Treated by irradiation” or “Treated with irradiation” must accompany the symbol. The irradiation label is not required on commercially prepared foods that contain irradiated ingredients, such as spices.This international symbol, called the radura, indentifies retail foods that have been irradiated. The words “Treated by irradiation” or “Treated with irradiation” must accompany the symbol. The irradiation label is not required on commercially prepared foods that contain irradiated ingredients, such as spices.
18Who Protects Your Food and How Do They Do It? Agency:USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)Food and Drug Administration (FDA)Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)Responsible for:Safe and accurately labeled meat, poultry, eggsSafety of all other foodsProtecting you and environment from harmful pesticidesProtecting against plant and animal pests and disease18
19Natural Toxicants in Foods Toxins occur naturally to help plant or animal fend off predators or capture foodNatural foods may contain harmful toxinsCooking won’t destroy toxinsPoisonous mushroomsEating in large quantity, cabbage, turnips, mustard greens, kale, broccoli, radishes contain goitrogens that may enlarge the thyroid glandLima beans contain cyanogens – produce cyanide poisoning when activated by certain plant enzymePotatoes contain solanine and can be toxic when consumed in large quantity
20Natural Toxicants in Foods Marine toxins:Spoiled finfish can cause scombrotoxic (histamine) fish poisoning.Large reef fish can bioaccumulate ciguatoxins produced by dinoflagellates.Shell fish can be contaminated by neurotoxins produced by dinoflagellates, causing paralytic shellfish poisoning.20
22Pesticides widely used in agriculture Chemical AgentsPesticides widely used in agriculturePesticides help promote abundant crop production.Types of pests include insects, weeds, microorganisms, fungi (mold), and rodentsOrganophosphates affect nervous systems of pests, are being re-reviewed by EPA to ensure safety22
23Chemical AgentsBiopesticides (naturally-derived) typically less toxic than synthetic chemical pesticidesExamples: insect sex pheromones interfere with mating of pests; baking soda can inhibit growth of fungiThe risks of pesticides:Synthetic pesticides can cause harm to animals, humans, environment depending on level of toxicity and how much consumedPesticide use is heavily regulated in the U.S.23
24Chemical Agents Regulating pesticides: who’s watching the crops? EPA evaluates all food pesticides using human health risk assessment: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, risk characterizationMinimize pesticides in your diet.Washing fruits and vegetables with clean, running water and vegetable brush removes up to 81% of pesticide residue24
26What Is Organic and How Do You Find Organic Foods? Organic farming: growing crops without the use of some synthetic pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, bioengineering or irradiationOrganic meat, poultry, eggs, dairy foods are free of antibiotics and growth hormoneUSDA: National Organic StandardsUSDA organic certification: must contain at least 95% organic ingredientsMay not be free of all pesticidesUSDA hasn’t found organic foods to be safer or nutritionally superior to conventional foods.26
29Food AdditivesAdditives are substances not normally eaten as foods, but added to food either intentionally or accidentallyMost are preservativesNitrite used in curing meat prevent poisoning from toxinNutrient additives enhance nutrient qualityRegulated by FDA: Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and 1958, Food Additives Amendment authorized FDA to regulate food and food ingredients and additives29
30Food Additives FDA require additives to be: Effective Detectable and measurable in the final productSafe when consume in large dosesExemptions: prior-sanctioned status (such as nitrates to preserve meats) and GRAS (generally recognized as safe) substances, such as salt, sugar, spices, vitamins, etc.
31Food Additives Nutrient Additives Monosodium glutamate (MSG) Sulfites Common Nutrient AdditivesThiamin, niacin, riboflavin, folate, and iron in grain productsIodine in saltVitamins A and D in milkVitamin C and calcium in fruit drinksVitamin B12 in vegetarian foodsMonosodium glutamate (MSG)Sulfites
32What is Genetic Engineering Use of biotechnology to modify the genetic material of living cells so they will produce new substances or perform new functions.Use to increase crop yieldsA single gene can be transferred from the same or different species to produce one with desired characteristics.Genetically modified or genetically engineer
33Why GE Foods Extended shelf life Improved nutrient composition TomatoesImproved nutrient compositionBiofortification to produce more nutrientsEfficient food processingEfficient drug deliveryBananas and potatoes are used to make hepatitis vaccinesTobacco leaves to make AIDs drugs
34Why GE? Genetically assisted agriculture Increase crop yields Extend growing seasons½ of the soybean crop in the US have been Ge’d to withstand potent herbicideCorn broccoli and potatoes receive a gene that toxic to caterpillars to protect the crop
35Problem with GE Foods Food industry driven by profit, not food safety Unpredictable outcomeDisruption of natural ecosystemsIntroduction of diseaseIntroduction of allergens and toxinsCreation of biological weaponsEthical dilemmas
36GE Foods and the FDAGE foods are not substantially different from others and therefore does not require:Special testing,Regulations, orLabelingGE foods differ from conventional foods by only one or two genes
37De-coding the Numbers on the produce For conventionally grown fruit, (grown with chemicals inputs), the PLU code on the sticker consists of four numbers. (4011)Organically grown fruit has a five-numeral PLU prefaced by the number 9. (94011)Genetically engineered (GM) fruit has a five-numeral PLU prefaced by the number 8. (84011)Processed foods do not have PLU codes
3810 points extra credit: Extra Credit Complete worksheet for chapter 19, posted on the course website. Note the worksheet has two parts, you must complete part 1 and two to get full credit.