9.1 FROM ENGINES TO ENGINEERS Reading Act. 1 (p. 90) What do engineers do? What different types of engineers are there?
Reading 2a (p. 90) Look at the text. Where do you think it comes from? The text is probably a leaflet or an informational ad in a magazine. It’s aimed at women as can be inferred from the title and the photo.
Reading 2b (p. 91) Choose the most suitable heading for each paragraph. ??? 1 a; 2 b; 3 d; 4 e; 5 c
Reading 2c (p. 91) Match these inventions with the type of engineering field mentioned in the text. 1) roads 2) aircraft 3)a washing machine 4) microchips 5) heart pacemaker civil engineering aerospace engineering Mechanical engineering Computer engineering Biomedical engineering
LISTENING (p. 91) 3a Lindsay Barone is one of the few women engineers in a high position. Listen to the interview. What type of engineering has she worked in? -Aerospace engineering; but she studied mechanical engineering at university.
VOCABULARY: word combination (p. 91) 5a Match the verbs with the most appropriate words and phrases. Build a model/prototype Test a theoryDo safety tests Solve a problem Make a breakthrough Do some research Meet deadlines Find a solution
VOCABULARY: word combination (p. 91) 5b Complete the sentences with an appropriate combination from exercise 5a. The first letter of the noun is given.
SPEAKING: Activity 6 (p. 91) Work with a partner. Look at the list of some great engineering achievements.
Add one more achievement to each category. Around the house: the refrigerator, the microwave oven, the vacuum cleaner, __________ Getting around: the railway engine, the jet airliner, the automobile/car, ______________ Medicine/health: contact lenses, the thermometer, laser surgery, ______________ Entertainment: radio, television, compact discs, ______________ Construction: the pyramids, the Eiffel Tower, the Panama Canal, _______________ Decide which is the greatest engineering achievement in each category.
9.2 GRAMMAR: The Passive (p. 93) Look at these sentences and spot the passive structure -The earth has been struck many times in the past by large objects. -The meteorite is estimated to be 12 kilometres in diameter. -The rock, 2001 YB5, was first seen in December 2000. -Only about half of the large Near Earth Objects (NEOs) have been found. -It is estimated that about 500 NEOs have not yet been discovered. -30 percent of the sky hasn’t been surveyed. -A research project has just been set up by NASA. -Computer simulations will be used to work out the feasibility of changing the direction of asteroids. -Plans have already been announced by European Science Agency. -Two spacecrafts will be used.
9.2 GRAMMAR: The Passive (p. 93) In which tense are these passive structures formed? -The earth has been struck many times in the past by large objects. -The meteorite is estimated to be 12 kilometres in diameter. -The rock, 2001 YB5, was first seen in December 2000. -Only about half of the large Near Earth Objects (NEOs) have been found. -It is estimated that about 500 NEOs have not yet been discovered. -30 percent of the sky hasn’t been surveyed. -A research project has just been set up by NASA. -Computer simulations will be used to work out the feasibility of changing the direction of asteroids. -Plans have already been announced by European Science Agency. -Two spacecrafts will be used.
9.2 GRAMMAR: The Passive (p. 93) Do exercises 4c / 5a-b / 6 / 7a-b
9.3 SUPERSTRUCTURES SPEAKING What is the largest structure you have ever been in or on? How did you feel in/on something so big? How would you feel if you were: a)At the top of a building? b)In a tunnel deep in the ground? c)In a building at the bottom of the sea?
9.3 Vocabulary Aircraft (n.): any vehicle, with or without an engine, that can fly, such as a plane or helicopter: e.g: military aircraft
9.3 Vocabulary Aviation (n.): the activity of flying aircraft, or of designing, producing, and keeping them in good condition: e.g: the British Civil Aviation Authority e.g: the US Federal Aviation Administration e.g: aviation fuel
9.3 Vocabulary Prototype (n.): the first example of something, such as a machine or other industrial product, from which all later forms are developed: e.g: a prototype for/of a new car
9.3 Vocabulary Flight test (n. Phr.): a branch of aeronautical engineering that develops and gathers data during flight of an aircraft
9.3 Vocabulary Mass-produce (v.): to produce a lot of goods cheaply using machines in a factory
9.3 Vocabulary Modification (n.): a change to something, usually to improve it: e.g: Modification of the engine to run on lead-free fuel is fairly simple. e.g: A couple of modifications and the speech will be perfect.
9.3 Vocabulary Simulation (n.): a model of a set of problems or events that can be used to teach someone how to do something, or the process of making such a model: e.g: The manager prepared a computer simulation of likely sales performance for the rest of the year.
9.3 Vocabulary Wind-tunnel (n. Phr.): a closed passage or room through which currents of air are forced in order to study the effects of moving air on aircraft and other vehicles
Grammar: ARTICLES We use a/an: - When we refer to a singular-countable noun for the first time We use the: -When we refer to something that has been mentioned before -With the names of some countries (the USA, the UK, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic) -With the names of geographical features (seas, island groups, mountain ranges, oceans, rivers…) -When there is only one of something (The tunnel) -When we know which thing the speaker/writer refers to (the sea…)