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1 While You’re Waiting… Complete the following sentence stems:
The student whose behavior is of most concern to me is… Describe the specific inappropriate actions (Avoid labels and generalities) that the pupil displays on a regular basis. My best guess as to the cause of his/her pattern of behavior is that s/he… Things that seem to “set off” or instigate the behaviors include… A signal or sign that cues me of an impending behavioral episode is… My usual response to his/her inappropriate actions is to…

2 Why Does This Kid Keep Doing That?
Putting the pieces together to figure out the reason(s) behind inappropriate behavior patterns.

3 The intervention(s) that we select will be dependant upon the reason(s) for the behavior pattern.

4 Why does that kid keep doing that?
(to me) In your teams: Compile a listing of the many reasons why kids might fail to quickly, fully, and continually comply with teacher directions and/or classroom expectations. Phases of the moon Partly cloudy, cloudy, rainy, sunny, snowy, hazy, foggy, warm, chilly, hot, cold, calm, breezy, windy, humid, dry, … (Gordon on teaching: “I am the weather.”) Televised wrestling replacing Mr. Rogers Space aliens disguising themselves as children Mimes (my personal view) Something in the water . Previous to this slide, say something like: “There are several models that have been developed to assist you in determining the reason for the demonstration of the behavior(s). Before we delve into them however, take a few minutes in your groups to make a listing of common-held beliefs regarding the reasons for non-compliance. Click to start the slide, and say something like: “I’ve listed a few reasons to help you get started.” Give the groups a while to list possibilities. Then reconvene the session and take responses. After exhausting the responses, click the mouse to project the next slide.

5 So…What did you come up with?
Perhaps I’m unknowingly involved in one of those “reality shows” I see on TV. Part of a vast conspiracy to control the world. (It’s not paranoia when they really are after you.) Payback for my actions in a previous life. A side effect of global warming. I’m stuck in a bad dream and can’t wake up.

6 Ages and Stages? Transitional phases of human development?
-Late Infancy to Toddlerhood Sleep/Toilet training (“Superego” meets “Id”) Thank your parents Limitations placed on newfound mobility (“Superego v. Id”) Learns to say the power word… NO! -(pre)Adolescence? -Old age? -Newly Married. Ask: “Did any of the groups address transitional stages in development that often result in defiance? What are the common ‘stages’ that humans go through? (Take responses…usually ‘terrible twos’ and ‘adolescence’ are offered) Toddlerhood – Freud said that we are all born with one part of the personality…the ID. It’s the part that tells us to do what we want when we want to do it. Then comes ‘sleep training’ and ‘toilet training’ when society tell you that you can’t always do things how you want, when you want. The restrictions you learn are called the ‘superego’. The ‘ego’, a decision-making part then develops. It attempts to find ways to meet our needs and drives in socially acceptable ways. In many of our kids, the ego sides too much with either the ID or the Superego. Adolescence – “Why do adolescents get this rap? What is it about that age that can make them appear uncooperative?” (developing knowledge and skill, want more influence in decisions affecting their lives). Old age – “Why do the seniors sometimes get upset with us?” (formerly self sufficient folks now need assistance, resent others telling them when to do things after having done so well previously) Newly married – Partners tell us that we can’t live our lives with such self-absorption anymore.

7 Ages & Stages (Continued)
Some characteristics that are common and expected at certain ages can spawn behavior that is viewed by adults as being “defiant” or “disruptive”. An awareness of these expected age-based traits can help us develop greater tolerance…and remind us to make use of positive and respectful interventions that TEACH more appropriate ways of handling situations. Groups work to assign traits listed in their packets to ages 6-12 or Some listed traits are not common at either age range (assign a “N”). Then they identify some behaviors that they see that could be due to the traits on the pages. When the session reconvenes, as for the “N” traits (not appropriate for any age). Then click to show next slide (Key for ages 6-12) and while the traits are appearing, ask for examples of behaviors they see that are reflective of some of these. Click the mouse to show the traits for the age groups and ask for examples of behaviors they see that reflect some of these traits.

8 Common Developmental Traits That Can Lead To Non-Compliance - Ages 6 to 12^
Wants to determine behavioral boundaries (for psychological comfort). Tests behavioral boundaries and constraints placed by authority. Asks “Why?” often Ego-centric: Sees self as center of the universe. Wants desirable things NOW. Wants to do non-desirable tasks on own schedule Difficulty seeing the view/rights of others. Often doesn’t want rules, turn-taking, sharing to apply to him/her. Thinks people (including teachers) often pick on him/her. Reacts to perceived unfairness or lack of support by withdrawing or complaining. Possessive & Impulsive Thinks his/her needs & desires should come before those of others. “It’s mine.”, “I had it first.”, “I want it!” Wants success at meeting goals to come easily Complains that tasks are “too hard”. Expects to win games/raffle. *So what behaviors do you often see that reflect these traits?

9 Common Developmental Traits That Can Lead To Non-Compliance - Ages 13 to 18^
Wants to make decisions influencing his/her life Peer group influence exceeds that of adults Engages in actions to earn acceptance of highly perceived peers Attempts to gain positive attention from those to whom s/he is romantically attracted Highly concerned about personal appearance Unconcerned about neatness of surroundings Needs to project appearance of competence even if not so “I know it already” attitude Views education unrelated to interests as “boring” Frontal lobe in boys probably poorly developed in comparison to girls lowered sensitivity to feelings of others less awareness/concern for safety of self & others *What behaviors do you commonly witness that reflect these traits?

10 Other Reasons For Defiant Behavior
Hasn’t learned behaviors that meet school expectations. Learned other "right ways" to behave in certain situations. Their (re)actions reflect practices common in low income areas culturally different / immigrant households. Emulation of behavior/responses modeled in the homes or neighborhoods of “the disenfranchised”. (A learned pattern of confrontational behavior when dealing with authority figures in demanding situations). Knows the “appropriate” behavior that is expected, but hasn’t had sufficient practice to perform it proficiently. Haven’t been taught: Lean away from rock Other right ways: Lack practice: roll Initial attempts: Emotions: Me in waterfall hole getting beat up.

11 A few more reasons Physical influences (SID, ADHD, Tourettes, medication reactions) Group influence/peer pressure Rebellion against authority/striving for increased decision making influence over one’s life. His/her initial attempts at performing the desired behavior didn’t work, so s/he overgeneralizes and assumes that it will never work with anyone at anytime in any place. Surging emotions interfere with the display of the behavior. When humans are under stress, they often revert to behaviors that are most familiar in those situations.

12 Class IV section (Housatonic River, CT)

13 Times When We Play a Significant Role in the Appearance of Defiant Actions?
Avoiding failure: -feeling “dumb” in comparison to others. -failing publicly around non-accepting audience. Preoccupied by outside pressures & our direction becomes “The straw that broke the camel’s back”. (“Displaced anger”) Fulfilling a role assigned (& maintained) by significant adults (parents & educators) -bad -dumb -rude. Avoiding failure: Known as ‘defensive behaviors’. Given a choice between being ‘bad’ and appearing ‘dumb’, bad trumps dumb every time. Frustration – It is difficult to give up the pursuit of an interesting endeavor at a moment’s notice, but that is often what we ask kids to do. Fulfilling a role – Say something like: “Kids hear what others say. Imagine a kid does something and hears himself called ‘rude’ by the adult. He doesn’t even know what it means yet, but someone who knows more about the world than him and in whose charge he has been placed has told him the type of person that he is. Then one day he sees another kid get called rude, and thinks ‘I saw what he did, and I’m rude like him, so I guess that is what I ought to be doing…because what do rude people do?...Rude things.”

14 Directives & assignments viewed as being:
Frustration when educators interfere with their present pursuit of a desired goal (completing a task, reaching a stopping point in a game, socializing, pestering another). Directives & assignments viewed as being: -wrong -unreasonable -waste of time AND one’s contributions/suggestions/contrary views given no consideration by the adult. A general dislike for each other between the student and educational professional has become ingrained. Each plays a continuing role that instigates and escalates problems.

15 Assessment Procedures

16 Behavior & Disabilities^
According to IDEA, we must engage in investigative procedures to determine the reason for persistent misbehavior IF: The student already has an identified disability (any one). If we believe that that student may have a disability (be it an emotional/psychological/behavioral disorder OR another disability that might be a contributing factor to the inappropriate actions). The combination of procedures is known collectively as “FBA”. FBA?

17 An FBA is a set of precise and complex procedures for…
…helping the Committee on Special Education arrive at the wrong conclusion with great certainty. …determining the motivation, function, or cause of the aberrant pattern of behavior. (Which assists us in devising effective interventions.) Some investigative methods that might be included in an “FBA” are…? Medical evaluation Psychological evaluation Psycho-Social Assessment (“ecological” assessment) A-B-C Analysis Determination of the student’s “Mistaken Goals” (Oddly, rarely conducted nowadays) General data collection (behavioral recording, checklists).

18 ^ Steps for conducting all the evaluation procedures that follow (A-B-C, “Mistaken Goals”, “Behavioral recording”) can be found at Now for the A-B-C method for gaining insight into a behavior’s etiology. Professionals engage in the A-B-C process in order to determine the cause of repeated behaviors that take the same (or very similar) form and tend to happen under the same circumstances. This process is part of the evaluation procedures of the “ABA” orientation. ABA? .

19 The World According to ABA^
All behavior is… learned. A particular behavior is initiated by something that happens previous to it. Behaviors continue to exist because they either: bring desired benefits (“positive reinforcement”) or fend off undesired events (“negative reinforcement”). Behaviors can be built, modified, or extinguished by skillfully manipulating the events and circumstances that surround them. We are one of those “events”. Behaviors are best understood by using the “A-B-C” method of analysis. Another model for explaining why kids behave as they do comes from the behaviorists and the ABA (Applied Behavior Analysis) orientation. A stimulus sparks a behavior to happen, but whether it continues to do so depends on what follows the behavior. If a benefit follows, the behavior will be show again after that stimulus. We can determine the reasons for behaviors by looking at the behavior and what precedes and follows it.

20 A,B,C…it’s as easy as 1,2,3^ “There you go again. Why do you always…?”
An Antecedent (stimulus) sparks a Behavior that is maintained by a Consequence. Explain and elaborate.

21 In order to prevent inappropriate behaviors from being exhibited ^
Assure that the Antecedent does not occur. Prompt (and promptly reinforce) a “Replacement Behavior” that meets the same physical and/or emotional need as the undesirable one. “We can get rid of an undesirable behavior by keeping the stimulus/antecedent from ever occurring (Don’t sit the youngster next to that other kid; Get a new paraprofessional to replace the one that sets off this kid; etc.). OR we can prevent the benefit from following the behavior (or at least outweigh the benefits with drawbacks to showing it)”. The print in green does not appear on their handouts. Explain the slide as it develops. It will stop at the red colon after “hazards”. Ask the audience to mention some of the problems with ignoring. Then click to show the answers. The slide will stop again at the red period after ‘ineffective’. Click again to show the last points.

22 In order to “extinguish” a behavior, deprive it of what keeps it going
Disallow the usual reinforcing Consequence (the “benefit”, “reward”, or “payout”) and respond to the behavior in what manner? Punish it what is available to us often doesn’t outweigh benefits of behavior generally ineffective and fraught with hazards. Ignore it Often difficult to do The practice is plagued with problems such as? Other pupils complain Other kids think that it is OK to emulate this behavior Some behaviors are self stimulating We frequently witness a “behavior burst”.

23 How Does One Ignore Effectively?^
Ignoring will cause behaviors to eventually die out (“extinguish”) IF: The student desires your attention All attention from all other sources is blocked You can withhold attention during the “behavior burst” which often escalates to “extinction-induced aggression” before ceasing. Say something like: “For ignoring to be effective, certain conditions must be met. What are they?” Take answers, then click the mouse to reveal a-c. The student must want your attention if your ignoring is going to work. Your use of ignoring will fail if attention for the behavior is received from other sources (e.g., other kids laughing or ridiculing, another teacher thinking s/he is helping you by leaning into the room and telling the student to stop, the behavior brings pleasure/self-stimulation) The student, unable to get noticed via the usual means, displays escalating versions of the behavior in an attempt to get the desired attention. For example, a student who usually gets your attention by verbally pestering another student, might insult that student. If we ignore that stronger version, s/he may then poke the other student. If we and the other student ignore that behavior, s/he may throw a punch to the arm of the victim. Can we ignore that behavior? Probably not. However, if we now give our attention to the new behavior, we reinforce it. The student may now go immediately to that new behavior in order to obtain attention. We’ve then created a new and worse behavior than the previously one that we were trying to extinguish.

24 Ignore The Behavior While Telling Others What You’re Doing
“Thank you. Yes, I’m aware of that behavior and I will be addressing it later. I’m definitely not letting it go. The rules still apply to everyone. I will be dealing with that person’s behavior later during…(some non-academic and desirable activity). Now let’s return to our activity.” .

25 Situation: The teacher asks a question to the class
Situation: The teacher asks a question to the class.  Raheem quickly yells out an answer.  The teacher tells Raheem to raise his hand from now on (as s/he always tells him to do), but thanks him for the answer and goes on with the lesson. Your Team’s Task: Identify the Antecedent Behavior Consequence Be ready to report how the teacher might manipulate the “A” and “C”. Also identify a replacement behavior that meets the child’s need for attention, power, prestigue, money, sensory stimulation…whatever the identified need. Give teams a few minutes to address the situation on this slide and prepare their responses. Take responses, then click on the mouse to show one possibility on the next slide.

26 Some Possibilities The teacher could eliminate the antecedent by calling on particular students. Do so after the question is asked, not before (Jacob Kounin’s “group alerting” technique)...or else all the other students will let their minds wander. OR Students could be given dry eraser boards and pens so that everyone shows their answer on command. The teacher might also change the consequence by ignoring the answer ("I only hear the answer of students who raise their hands and wait to be called upon.  I'm looking for a hand.") or punishing "calling out" behavior (while praising the hand raising of other students). The teacher might also work with Raheem to develop a new behavior to get the reward/reinforcement.  Each time Raheem raises his hand (whether he knows the answer or not, and whether he is called upon by the teacher or not) he gets a point.  Twenty points allows him to present information to the class tomorrow, or gives him five minutes of personal time with the teacher (allowing him to receive the desired rewards of either appearing knowledgeable or gaining personal contact with the teacher). OR Teach him a special hand raise when you WILL call on him (limited to two per day). Paraphrase, explain, elaborate.

27 Rudolf Dreikurs’ Model^
The greatest human need is “to belong”. If we don’t feel accepted and valued in an important life setting, we react negatively… progressively so, if issues remain unresolved. When kids don’t feel valued by teachers and peers at school, they engage in one or more of four (4) “Mistaken Goals”: Seeking ATTENTION (If not getting enough to feel accepted and valued) Seeking POWER (Accepting negative attention) Seeking REVENGE (Resentment and anger from losing the power struggle) Displaying INADEQUACY (Lack of success brings an end to the pursuit to belong). Show this slide, mentioning that Rudolf Driekurs developed a system to identify the reasons for misbehavior back in the 1970’s. It applies moreso to elementary aged kids, but still too to adolescents to a large degree. Mention that some kids have learned other ‘right ways’ to respond in situations, and may need to learn to become ‘cultural chameleons’, able to show the correct behavior in the correct setting, being successful in both school and home situations.

28 It’s in your hands… Right now, we’ll take a quick look at some slides outlining the Mistaken Goals method of assessment. Semi-complete versions of them can be found inside your packet. Later, they’ll serve as resources as we use the content of these slides to: Determine the mistaken goal of a behavior viewed on a video Devise interventions for that mistaken goal. Mention that you’re going to quickly run through the slides

29 ATTENTION SEEKING^ unless the teacher hovers over them They might:
Pesky behavior surfaces when kids aren't getting the amount of positive recognition they desire for their attempts to “be good”. (e.g., starting a task, remaining on-task, completing work, arriving on time, being nice to others). It is especially prominent in kids who: Struggle academically Don’t’ get much positive attention at home Desire it from you Have learned to be satisfied with negative attention These kids feel important if the teacher pays attention to them and provides them with extra services. They might: -ask irrelevant questions   -call out frequently   -fail to engage in the task or stay focused unless the teacher hovers over them Assessing whether we’re right: Address the mistaken goal in a friendly, respectful, and non threatening manner.  This course of action removes the power of the mistaken goal.  Try this phrasing using concerned, polite, non sarcastic wording and tone of voice. "Could it be that you'd like me to spend more time with you?“ Verification: verbal acknowledgement or non-verbal look of recognition . When the slide stops at the red colon, ask “How might kids inappropriately seek your attention?” Obtain responses, then click on the mouse to complete the slide. Paraphrase the slide. The green print is missing on their handouts.

30 An Example of an Attention-Seeking Pattern of Behavior
While we watch the “Amy” video clip… Identify the actions that evidence this stage Consider how we might intervene in order to address: Her academic concerns (assistance) Her need for positive contact (attention).

31 SEEKING POWER (our defiant kids) ^
If attention seeking actions don't work, resentful youngsters may try to make your professional life miserable.   They might: -argue   -contradict   -lie   -refuse to work or follow directions   -throw a temper tantrum   -tell you to "go take a flying leap"   -behave hostilely toward you Assessing whether we’re right: Using concerned, polite, non-sarcastic wording and tone of voice, say: "When you try to prove that nobody can make you do things you don't want to do, does that mean you’re upset with us?” . Paraphrase slide as it is projected onto the screen.

32 A “Power Struggle” with a “Defiant Kid”
Which possible precipitating factors for the “off task” behavior should the teacher have considered before intervening? What might have contributed to the student’s failure to copy from the board as others were doing during that time? Does it appear as if the student and teacher have established a warm personal connection to one another? Is the classroom a welcoming, validating, and valuing place for this youngster? Which of the teacher’s interventions were counterproductive? What facets of her approach contributed to the decay of the situation? What might this teacher have done, or what might she do in the future, to avoid the problems we witnessed, address the “mistaken goal”, and accomplish her instructional goal? Consider how she might address: His academic needs His need to avoid “losing face” (being the recipient of a public shaming). *This video is available from National Educational Services and is part of the “Circle of Courage” (Brendtro, Brokenleg, & VanBockern) training packet. Mention that they now will have the opportunity to apply all that has come before, and add their own thoughts/practices. Tell the groups to address these tasks (paraphrase) after they view the upcoming video. Say something like “This gal has sunk deep into the teaching abyss. If she were your mentee or student teacher, what would you recommend. Be sure to consider all the questions on this projection.” Then show the video clip.

33 We have met the enemy… and it is us. (Pogo)
When we set out to “Teach ‘em a lesson.”, we don’t. Teachers who didn’t receive adequate behavior management training tend to (over/under)react to inappropriate student actions in either “Hapless” or “Hurtful” (ala “PsychoTeacher”) ways. Support and training for becoming a “Helpful” educator can be found at . Show this slide as you are about to reconvene the session after the group activity. As you regain everyone’s attention, say something like “I can’t believe that this teacher went into teaching to belittle students and gain compliance via coercion and rejection. However, because she didn’t have adequate training (or failed to remember it), she’s probably going down to the teachers’ lounge and bragging to others about her 7 dwarfs metamorphosis (‘I started out as Dopey, but now I’m Grumpy.’). It’s all a cover for her feelings of being inadequate. So let’s help her out.” Go to next slide to start the discussion.

34 Recognize that some issue is affecting performance…Such as?
Feeling ill. Left glasses at home. Unable to do the assignment. Outside concerns brought into the classroom. Continuing issues with you that need to be resolved in order to build/maintain positive feelings about each other. The slide will stop at the red question mark. Have the audience contribute before clicking the mouse to reveal some possibilities. Then click to go to the next slide to address the other questions.

35 Suggestions. Deal with issues in private.
Stay in control of one’s emotions. “The greatest lesson we can learn is infinite patience & never-ending persistence.” (Franklin Delano Roosevelt –”FDR”) -Use a civil tone of voice -Avoid “put downs” -Avoid saying that a task is “simple” or “easy” -not EZ for LD kid who forgot how to do it -not worthy of being taught in school if it’s “easy”. Never use a frontal attack on a superior opponent (or anyone else for that matter). Make use of the positive strategies from past and future SPED 702 sessions.

36 Research On Public Belittlement / Verbal Bullying
When people were publicly chastised, only 1 in 10 improved his/her performance. 9 of 10 performed worse the next time around. Publicly criticized individuals: -felt increased self doubt regarding their abilities -resented the approach taken to address their actions/performance -felt dislike toward the ones who chastised them . This research was conducted with college students. You know…Psych 101 students are paid to engage in a study. They think that they’re doing one thing, but the experimenters are really studying something else. So a “pigeon” is called out in front of the group and publicly shamed for inferior work. Then the assistant experimenter comes in, reassures the poor student, and re-engages the student in the task. The results… “Tellin’ it like it is.” and “Letting ‘em know where they stand.” is a good idea, but we have to do it in a way that doesn’t sabotage our own efforts.

37 Positive Feedback Versus Criticism Ratio
Real life is 3-1 Morale problems set in at 2-1 Despair starts at 1-1 To promote appropriate behavior and positive self concept, the site recommends a ratio of 5 positive comments for every negative one (other sources recommend 8-30) with frequent contact for each student. “Frequent” meaning... (at least once every 5 minutes) Is you worst behaved student receiving a 5-1 ratio? (or even 3-1?)

38 SEEKING REVENGE (our aggressive kids)^
If attention or power seeking doesn't work, kids may seek revenge against you or others.  Their belief: "I can only feel significant if I hurt others.  I'm just doing what they've done to me.  I don't care if I'm disliked.  They deserve this behavior.  It is a victory to be disliked and to undergo punishment if I have retaliated and made them suffer.“ (Typically not done during a moment of confrontation. The vengeful act happens in a concealed manner or at an unexpected time.) They might:   -treat others cruelly   -set themselves up to be punished via the use of aggression -engage in pranks or vandalism behind your back Assessing whether we’re right: In concerned, polite wording and a non-sarcastic tone of voice, say: "When you did that, were you trying to: ? hurt me because you're angry with me?” . Paraphrase the slide. When it stops at the red question mark, ask how the statement might be completed.

Underneath the bravado of seeking revenge is deep discouragement.  The rejection by others eventually makes them feel worthless. They think: "Why even try anymore?“ Discouraged kids guard what is left of their self esteem by removing themselves from public and social tests. They think: "If I pretend to be stupid or refuse to cooperate, people will leave me alone.“ They might: -avoid interaction & become “invisible” in the class -passively refuse to participate in class activities -request to be left alone -sit silently and engage in no activities Assessing whether we’re right: In concerned, polite wording and a non-sarcastic tone of voice, say: "When you pretend that you're not capable of doing this work, are you trying to make me: go away?“ .

40 An “Inadequacy” Episode (or two)
Gayle’s spelling test - Our student is behind in reading, and struggles with written language. Shelly - Lunch time for a student in the inadequacy stage.

41 Another Way to Determine The Reason^
If the youngster doesn’t respond to your assessment question, you can still identify the “Mistaken Goal" via these guidelines: If you feel:                          The student is probably seeking: Annoyed                                     ? Threatened                                 ? Hurt                                             ? Disheartened (at inability to reach this student)                        ?      If a student:                                   Then the probable goal is: Stops a behavior, but then repeats it ?         Refuses to stop and increases the misbehavior ?       Becomes violent or hostile ?   Refuses to cooperate, participate, put forth effort, or interact ?   What might be the mistaken goal for “David”? .  Paraphrase the slide up until it stops at the red question marks. Ask them which of the goals applies in each case. Show the David video to elementary audiences. Show the Joe video to secondary audiences. Show both to mixed audiences.

42 Intervening With Mistaken Goal Kids^
  1. Explain that s/he is not the 1st kid to feel this way…Experts know about this way of feeling/acting, have studied it for generations, and know of better ways for youngsters to meet their needs.  Help him/her devise a plan to meet the needs in more appropriate ways. 2. Change your actions when confronted by the various behaviors: If the mistaken goal arises again, avoid reacting in the same old way Draw out, & then positively recognize, the desired replacement behavior 3. Build a positive bond between you and the student. How so? (Teams) Create an extensive history of positive interactions Use sandwiches when criticizing or offering suggestions Be alert for opportunities to “catch ‘em being good” State your belief in the youngster’s ability to succeed (academics & behavior) Interact in a manner that allows the student to feel valued and respected 4. Create Esprit de Corp in the classroom. How do you do so? (Teams) Conduct interesting cooperative group activities Allow only supportive comments in class. No put-downs Compete against other classrooms Implement a group reward system Have groups devise ways to accomplish #3 & #4 when the red question marks appear.

43 Specific Interventions for Attention Seeking^
Provide the youngster with acceptable ways of gaining the attention that is sought. Role play those new ways to increase the chances of them being used. Give signals/hints to prompt the behavior in real life situations. Set up a plan with the youngster which allows him/her to earn time with you. Provide the youngster with supports (e.g., a peer who will help the youngster if academic difficulties occur, a secret signal, etc.) Remind the youngster of what must be done to get your attention (e.g., raise hand).  If this action is not yet a usual response for the youngster, upon it’s display give your attention immediately (in order to reinforce that correct behavior). Verbally praise the youngster for displaying the appropriate behavior.  Wean the student from the immediate reaction on your part by telling him/her that you see his/her appropriate behavior and that you'll be there in just a minute (after attending to the other hand raisers first, or finishing the writing of a note, etc.) Just tell them that this slide may help them with an upcoming video (and any kids they have in their classes who attention seek).

44 Specific Interventions for Power Seeking^
Avoid power struggles Stay out of the "Conflict Cycle“ & prevent escalation of     the event. Don’t find fault. Find solutions. Use “problem solving” ( Recognize the youngster's need for power and influence. Involve the student in making decisions. Give responsibilities and positions of influence to the youngster. Use "I messages" (covered later today) followed by questions "I'm hearing some offensive language.  Could I hear that opinion restated in more restrained terms?" . Just tell them that this slide may help them with an upcoming video (and any kids they have in their classes who power seek.

45 Specific Interventions for Revenge Seeking^
Design activities in which the student and others (perhaps you) interact positively and cooperatively. Bond with the youngster. Give him/her the time of day. Build a friendly relationship. Treat him/her respectfully and supportively Expect resistance to your efforts at first.  Be unconditionally and persistently respectful and supportive. Don’t be a punching bag, but be politely assertive in your reactions. Just tell them that this slide may help them with an upcoming video (and any kids they have in their classes who are seeking revenge)

46 Specific Interventions for Kids Who Display Inadequacy^
Offer encouragement and support to the youngster. Do not criticize. Focus on the putting forth of effort, not accuracy or grades. Set up the youngster for success and recognize his/her efforts. Blame any lack of success on the curriculum, materials, or the way you taught the lesson, but do not blame the youngster. If minimal effort (or less) was exerted, positively acknowledge it and focus on ways to improve in that area. Devise ways that you can support heightened exertion. Have the student self-evaluate, identifying what s/he did correctly and incorrectly. Then have him/her develop a plan for improvement (or have him/her redo the task well).  Assist as needed. NEVER show frustration. This reaction may reinforce a sense of worthlessness. Just tell them that this slide may help them with an upcoming video (and any kids they have in their classes who have given up and display inadequacy)

47 Other ideas for motivating the unmotivated (Displaying Inadequacy)
Modify materials and presentation. Ensure understanding by asking the student to repeat the directions in his/her own words. Check in early with the student to assure understanding and task engagement. Promote motivation by: Focusing on effort rather than accuracy Reminiscing about earlier successes that resulted from effort Relating material to the student’s life & interests Assign peer helpers/cross age tutors. Elaborate on the various points presented in the slide. Modify – Address the student’s needs and learning styles. Ask your special education colleagues for tips. Focusing on effort – With effort, the grades will come. If we can get a kid to give his/her best, what more could we ask for? Reminiscing – Recollect times when putting forth one’s best effort resulted in success. Encourage the youngster to do the same now in order to learn the material. Relate material to student’s life – “It’s Wie Chu and Kong Ting going to the corner market to buy ginger root, bok choi, and rice. OR it’s Maritza and Juan going to the corner bodega to buy red beans, rice, and plantains. Teach new material in contexts that kids can visualize. Then move to more abstract examples.”

48 Psycho-Social Assessment
This information gathering process supports the Mistaken Goals and A-B-C assessments, and helps us to “fill in the blanks”. While watching the multi-faceted information gathering process, Conduct an A-B-C analysis for the two incidents with the teacher (floor hockey game, classroom independent work). (Scott DVD – 3 minute/Teams) While working in your teams for 10 minutes, please identify: The “Mistaken Goal” (if apparent) Other possible reasons (as per the previous two slides) Services that might be recommended Interventions & strategies .

49 OK, now I know that the student is defiant or aggressive because:
Hasn’t learned behaviors that meet school expectations Learned other "right ways" to behave in certain situations low income culturally different / immigrant Knows the “appropriate” behavior, but hasn’t had sufficient practice to do it proficiently. His/her initial attempts didn’t work, so s/he overgeneralizes and assumes that it will never work Surging emotions interfere with the display of the behavior Now What? .

50 What’s the job of a teacher?
Teach ‘em what they don’t yet know …but what and how (behaviorally speaking)? Reflective decision making Problem solving Social skills Anger management Conflict resolution Character education, in order to: Provide a solid foundation on which to base the newly acquired social-behavior skills Prevent a self-serving display of appropriate behavior . After title: “Besides serve as social worker, psychologist, drug educator, parent, mentor, etc. At end: “To avoid the victimization of another knowing that an apology will get them out of trouble.”

51 How is teaching behavior like teaching academics?^
Determine the current level of knowledge/skill. (questioning, observation) Make the learning relevant & useful to the learner. Make use of present knowledge/skills. Instruct, model, & provide guided practice. Provide more guided practice (at least 20 successes to ingrain in memory bank) with progressively more “pressure”.~ Recognize effort & progress. Re-teach parts with which s/he has difficulty. Source: Mary Beth Hewitt, What Changes Behavior? Punishment or Remediation. Choices

52 Why Don’t More Teachers Teach Behavior?
They don’t know how to do so. (Yet) Take heart! The process and procedures for teaching new behaviors are similar to the ways in which we teach new academic material. Therefore, you already possess the skills needed to do so. However, many teachers don’t accept the premise that behavior can or should be taught. Consider the following points in a commonly found school-based mindset. (derived in large part from Jones, 2001, page 296).

53 Infrequent Problems: Academic versus Behavioral
Academic: Assume the student was trying to make a correct response & that the mistake was accidental. Behavioral: Assume the student was not trying to make the correct response, and that the behavior was deliberate. Academic: Provide assistance. Behavioral: Provide a negative consequence.

54 Persistent Problems: Academic versus Behavioral
Academic: Assume the student learned the wrong way to do it or has been taught (inadvertently) the wrong way to perform the action. Behavioral: Presume that all students are capable of behaving correctly. Assume that this youngster consciously “chooses” to misbehave and be uncooperative.

55 Academic: Diagnose the nature and cause of problem in order to guide practice.
Behavioral: Provide more negative consequences. Academic: Determine a more effective way to present the material within the classroom. Behavioral: Remove the student from the classroom context. Academic: Provide practice, feedback, and review. Behavioral: Provide no instruction.

56 Final Assumptions Academic Problems: Based on the performance after instruction, assume that the student understands the concept and can apply the skill. Behavior Problems: Based on no instruction or remediation, assume that the student has “learned a lesson” and should therefore behave correctly in the future.

57 With apologies to the Mahatma…
“Be the change you want to see in the world.” The school-based version: “Be and teach the change you want to see in this world.” “We should be modeling the behavior we wish to see. Next we have a matching activity that involves non-confrontational strategies to use in disciplinary situations.”

58 Foundations for Understanding Behaviors (so that we can “teach” better ones)^
(nearly) All behavior is learned. Behaviors continue to be shown because there is a benefit to doing so. Behaviors can be built, modified, or extinguished by skillfully manipulating the events and circumstances that surround them. We are one of those “events”. Some initial behaviors shown by newborns were not “built”. Actions like crying, eye gaze, turning of head toward sound, etc. are naturally occurring, and are the foundations for future behaviors…all of which develop due to reinforcement from the environment. Every behavior you now show has a purpose and a benefit. If the behavior didn’t bring something desirable to you or keep something awful at bay, you wouldn’t show it. Why don’t I turn around 3 times before saying each sentence?...No benefit to doing so (and staying still keeps the coffee off of my suit). We can create more appropriate student reactions by carefully structuring what happens before and/or after a behavior. Behavior, like academics is taught. We can teach a whole new pattern of behavior to kids…social skills, anger management, etc. by using published curricula in these areas. If a student doesn’t yet have a prosocial behavior in his/her repetoire, let’s put it there. We’re teachers! Let’s teach.

59 When emotions start to Flare Remember…
Say something like: “When you get emotional, and are at risk for engaging in a battle with a youngster, remember these symbols. Oh…Is your Chinese a little rusty? This combination of symbols, I’m told, is the way in which “crisis” is written. It is a combination of ‘danger’ (upper) and ‘opportunity’ (lower). In every disruptive situation, there is danger for making things worse with our actions, but there is also the opportunity to help a youngster learn from the experience.”

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