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IMPROVING VOCABULARY SKILLS Fourth Edition Sherrie L. Nist © 2010 Townsend Press.

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Presentation on theme: "IMPROVING VOCABULARY SKILLS Fourth Edition Sherrie L. Nist © 2010 Townsend Press."— Presentation transcript:

1 IMPROVING VOCABULARY SKILLS Fourth Edition Sherrie L. Nist © 2010 Townsend Press

2 Unit One: Chapter 5 allusion banal altruistic euphemism appease mercenary arbitrary syndrome assailtaint

3 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 1 allusion Allusion means A. a contrast to. B. a hint about. C. an answer for. After I suggested that Monty have fruit for dessert instead of chocolate cake, he responded, “Is that an allusion to my weight?” Ramon didn’t have the courage to come right out and ask Lia to marry him. Instead, he made only an allusion to marriage by asking, “Wouldn’t it be easier if we had to fill out just one tax return?” – noun

4 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 1 allusion Allusion means A. a contrast to. B. a hint about. C. an answer for. – noun After I suggested that Monty have fruit for dessert instead of chocolate cake, he responded, “Is that an allusion to my weight?” Ramon didn’t have the courage to come right out and ask Lia to marry him. Instead, he made only an allusion to marriage by asking, “Wouldn’t it be easier if we had to fill out just one tax return?” The suggestion that Monty have fruit for dessert makes Monty think the person dropping a hint about his weight. Ramon’s question about filling out one tax return is a hint about getting married. 1 allusion – noun

5 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 2 altruistic – adjective Altruistic means A. unselfish. B. cheerful. C. greedy. When an enemy approaches, ground squirrels show altruistic behavior. They risk their own lives to give alarm calls to nearby relatives. “I’m not often altruistic,” Brett admitted. “I usually put my own welfare first.”

6 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Altruistic means A. unselfish. B. cheerful. C. greedy. When an enemy approaches, ground squirrels show altruistic behavior. They risk their own lives to give alarm calls to nearby relatives. “I’m not often altruistic,” Brett admitted. “I usually put my own welfare first.” If the squirrels risk their own lives to protect relatives, they are being unselfish. If Brett puts her own welfare first, she is being selfish, not unselfish. 2 altruistic – adjective

7 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 3 appease – verb Appease means A. to annoy. B. to heal. C. to calm. My sister was so outraged when I accidentally dropped and broke her cell phone that nothing I could say or do would appease her. Roger was furious when he saw me out with another guy, but I quickly appeased him by explaining that the “date” was my cousin.

8 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Appease means A. to annoy. B. to heal. C. to calm. My sister was so outraged when I accidentally dropped and broke her cell phone that nothing I could say or do would appease her. Roger was furious when he saw me out with another guy, but I quickly appeased him by explaining that the “date” was my cousin. If the sister was extremely outraged, no words or actions would be able to calm her. In the second item, the news that her “date” is her cousin would calm Roger’s fury. 3 appease – verb

9 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Professor Miller’s students were angry that he graded essays in an arbitrary way, rather than using clear-cut standards. Parents should not enforce rules according to their moods. Such arbitrary discipline only confuses children. 4 arbitrary Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Arbitrary means A. steady. B. slow. C. impulsive. – adjective

10 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Professor Miller’s students were angry that he graded essays in an arbitrary way, rather than using clear-cut standards. Parents should not enforce rules according to their moods. Such arbitrary discipline only confuses children. Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Arbitrary means A. steady. B. slow. C. impulsive. If Professor Miller doesn’t use clear-cut standards to grade the essays, he must grade them in an impulsive way. If parents enforce rules according to their moods, the discipline is impulsive rather than consistent. 4 arbitrary – adjective

11 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Assail means A. to attack. B. to confuse. C. to support. 5 assail – verb The storm assailed us with hail and heavy rain. The two candidates continuously assailed each other with accusations of dishonesty.

12 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Assail means A. to attack. B. to confuse. C. to support. The storm assailed us with hail and heavy rain. The two candidates continuously assailed each other with accusations of dishonesty. The hail and heavy rain of the storm attacked them. If the candidates are making accusations of dishonesty against one another, they are attacking each other. 5 assail – verb

13 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Banal means A. greedy. B. unoriginal. C. clever. The film, with its overused expressions and unimaginative plot, was the most banal I had ever seen. “Nice to see you” may be a banal comment, but what it lacks in originality it makes up for in friendliness. 6 banal “If my paper seems banal, that’s because my dad wrote it, and he hasn’t had an original idea in years!” – adjective

14 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Banal means A. greedy. B. unoriginal. C. clever. The film, with its overused expressions and unimaginative plot, was the most banal I had ever seen. “Nice to see you” may be a banal comment, but what it lacks in originality it makes up for in friendliness. If the film had overused expressions and an unimaginative plot, it must have been unoriginal. If the comment lacks originality, it is unoriginal. 6 banal – adjective “If my paper seems banal, that’s because my dad wrote it, and he hasn’t had an original idea in years!”

15 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Euphemism means A. a harsh term. B. a term that doesn’t offend. C. a foreign term. Common euphemisms include “final resting place” (for grave), “Intoxicated” (for drunk), and “Powder room” (for toilet). The Central Intelligence Agency is on record as having referred to assassination with the euphemism “change of health.” 7 euphemism – noun A euphemism for toilet

16 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Euphemism means A. a harsh term. B. a term that doesn’t offend. C. a foreign term. Common euphemisms include “final resting place” (for grave), “Intoxicated” (for drunk), and “Powder room” (for toilet). The Central Intelligence Agency is on record as having referred to assassination with the euphemism “change of health.” The first item gives three examples of terms that don’t offend. In the second item, “change of health” is a term that doesn’t offend, while the term assassination would be offensive to some. 7 euphemism – noun A euphemism for toilet

17 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Mercenary means A. jealous. B. angry. C. greedy. Ed is totally mercenary. His philosophy is, “Pay me enough, and I’ll do anything.” The con man pretended to love the wealthy widow, but he actually married her for mercenary reasons. 8 mercenary – adjective

18 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Mercenary means A. jealous. B. angry. C. greedy. Ed is totally mercenary. His philosophy is, “Pay me enough, and I’ll do anything.” The con man pretended to love the wealthy widow, but he actually married her for mercenary reasons. If Ed’s philosophy is that he’ll do anything if he gets enough money, he must be greedy. If the con man only pretended to love the wealthy widow, he must have married her for greedy reasons rather than for love. 8 mercenary – adjective

19 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Syndrome means A. a group of symptoms. B. a cause. C. something required. Headaches are usually harmless, but as part of a syndrome including fever and a stiff neck, they may be a sign of a serious illness. Jet lag is a syndrome resulting from flying long distances; it often includes exhaustion, headache, and loss of appetite. 9 syndrome – noun

20 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Syndrome means A. a group of symptoms. B. a cause. C. something required. Headaches are usually harmless, but as part of a syndrome including fever and a stiff neck, they may be a sign of a serious illness. Jet lag is a syndrome resulting from flying long distances; it often includes exhaustion, headache, and loss of appetite. Taken together, headache, fever, and stiff neck is a group of symptoms. In the second item, exhaustion, headache, and loss of appetite is another a group of symptoms. 9 syndrome – noun

21 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Taint means A. to benefit. B. to damage. C. to start. 10 taint The involvement of organized crime has tainted many sports, including boxing and horse racing. The government scandal tainted the reputations of everyone involved. – verb

22 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Taint means A. to benefit. B. to damage. C. to start. The involvement of organized crime has tainted many sports, including boxing and horse racing. The government scandal tainted the reputations of everyone involved. The involvement of organized crime has damaged boxing and horse racing. A scandal would damage the reputations of those involved. 10 taint – verb

23 SENTENCE CHECK 1 2.“Someone hasn’t shown me his report card.” my mother said, making a(n) ________ to my brother. 1.There have been people _____________ enough to sell their own children for the right price. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. allusionB. altruisticC. appeaseD. arbitraryE.assail F. banalG. euphemismH. mercenaryI. syndromeJ.taint

24 SENTENCE CHECK 1 2.“Someone hasn’t shown me his report card.” my mother said, making an _________ to my brother. 1.There have been people _____________ enough to sell their own children for the right price. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. allusionB. altruisticC. appeaseD. arbitraryE.assail F. banalG. euphemismH. mercenaryI. syndromeJ.taint mercenary allusion People who would sell their own children must be greedy. By using the word someone, the mother is making an indirect reference to her son.

25 4.The mugger _______ed his victims with a baseball bat. SENTENCE CHECK 1 5.The local undertaker insists on using a(n) ________ for the chapel of his funeral parlor. He calls it the “slumber room.” 3.It takes a(n) _______ person to adopt a disabled child. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. allusionB. altruisticC. appeaseD. arbitraryE.assail F. banalG. euphemismH. mercenaryI. syndromeJ.taint

26 4.The mugger _________ his victims with a baseball bat. SENTENCE CHECK 1 5.The local undertaker insists on using a __________ for the chapel of his funeral parlor. He calls it the “slumber room.” 3.It takes an ________ person to adopt a disabled child. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. allusionB. altruisticC. appeaseD. arbitraryE.assail F. banalG. euphemismH. mercenaryI. syndromeJ.taint Caring for a disabled child takes a lot of time and energy, so a person who adopts such a child would have to be unselfish. A mugger physically attacks people. By calling the chapel the “slumber room,” the undertaker is trying to use a less offensive term. altruistic assailed euphemism

27 SENTENCE CHECK 1 6.The report that the halfback was addicted to drugs _______(e)d the team’s image. 7.The only thing that would __________ the dead boy’s parents was imprisonment of the drunk driver who had killed him. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. allusionB. altruisticC. appeaseD. arbitraryE.assail F. banalG. euphemismH. mercenaryI. syndromeJ.taint

28 SENTENCE CHECK 1 6.The report that the halfback was addicted to drugs ___________ the team’s image. 7.The only thing that would __________ the dead boy’s parents was imprisonment of the drunk driver who had killed him. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. allusionB. altruisticC. appeaseD. arbitraryE.assail F. banalG. euphemismH. mercenaryI. syndromeJ.taint Having a team member who is addicted to drugs would damage the team’s image. The parents would be calmed only if their son’s killer was sent to prison. tainted appease

29 9.The judge’s harsh sentence was _______. Rather than being based on past similar cases or on the seriousness of the crime, it was based on the judge’s opinion of the defendant. SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. allusionB. altruisticC. appeaseD. arbitraryE.assail F. banalG. euphemismH. mercenaryI. syndromeJ.taint 8.Abraham Lincoln is thought to have had Marfan’s __________, a group of symptoms which includes unusually long bones and abnormal blood circulation. 10.“You’re special” probably appears on thousands of greeting cards, but when someone says it to you and means it, it never seems _________.

30 9.The judge’s harsh sentence was _______. Rather than being based on past similar cases or on the seriousness of the crime, it was based on the judge’s opinion of the defendant. 10.“You’re special” probably appears on thousands of greeting cards, but when someone says it to you and means it, it never seems _________. SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. allusionB. altruisticC. appeaseD. arbitraryE.assail F. banalG. euphemismH. mercenaryI. syndromeJ.taint 8.Abraham Lincoln is thought to have had Marfan’s __________, a group of symptoms which includes unusually long bones and abnormal blood circulation. syndrome arbitrary banal The words a group of symptoms tell you the meaning of syndrome. A sentence based on the judge’s opinion is determined by personal judgment. If it appears on thousands of greeting cards, it could seem overused.


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