2The present perfect tense consists of : Have/has + the past participle form of the verb. I have seen their photos. She has lived abroad. Have ( I, you, they, we, plural nouns) Has (she, he, it, singular nouns) Contractions: I’ve, we’ve, they’ve, she’s, he’s, it’s
3UsesActions or situations that happened at an unspecified time in the past:I have been to Canada.My parents have returned from there.I haven’t seen the Houses of Parliaments.She has not been to Brazil.
4Time expressions for this use are: already, just, ever, recently, still, yet, so far and up to now. I’ve already seen their photos. My parents have just returned from Canada. My family still hasn’t had time for a trip. They have shot 10 rolls of film so far. Up until now, we haven’t had the money.
52- Repeated actions ay unspecified times in the past 2- Repeated actions ay unspecified times in the past. I have been to London twice. Paul hasn’t traveled outside his country too many times. Time expressions like: once, twice, several times.. Etc
6Yes/ No questions in the present perfect tense: The adverb : (not) ever is common in the present perfect tense: Have you ever been to New York? Yes, I have No, I haven’t Has she ever seen the Empire State Building? Yes, she has No, she hasn’t Haven’t you ever seen the Faisalia Tower? Yes, I have No, I haven’t
7Information Questions Have or has separates the question word from the sentence subject. Why have you come here? How many times have you been here? How much money have you spent? Where have you been? Why haven’t you brought a map?
8In present perfect questions with who or what as the subject , the word order is the same as in a statement. Who has lived abroad? Jaun has lived abroad. Who hasn’t taken any pictures? No one has.
9Ever, never, already, just, recently, still and yet. Questions:1. Ever: means “at any time”. It comes before the past participle.Have you ever been to the British Museum?2. Already: means “before now”. It may come before the past participle or at the end of the question.Have you already been to the British Museum?Have you been to the British Museum already?
103. Yet: means “up to now”. It is usually placed at the end of the question. Have you visited the British Museum yet?
11Affirmative statements: Just: refers to the very recent past.It comes before the past participle.I’ve just visited that museum.
122. Already/ recently: usually come before the past participle or at the end of the sentence. I’ve already visited that museum. I’ve visited that museum already. I’ve recently visited that museum. I’ve visited that museum recently.
13Negative Statements:1. Never: means “not at any time”. It must come before the past participle. I have never visited that museum. 2. yet: usually comes at the end of a negative statement. I haven’t visited that museum yet.
143. Still: means “up to now”. Still comes before has or have 3. Still: means “up to now”. Still comes before has or have. I still haven’t visited that museum.