Presentation on theme: "1- SHELTERS: NOMAD AND REGULAR HOMES IGLOOS TIMBER HUTS YURTS THATCHED HUTS STONE HUTS TEPEES ADOBE HUTS CAVES HUTS ON POLES DESERT TENTS Anselm Pagès."— Presentation transcript:
1- SHELTERS: NOMAD AND REGULAR HOMES IGLOOS TIMBER HUTS YURTS THATCHED HUTS STONE HUTS TEPEES ADOBE HUTS CAVES HUTS ON POLES DESERT TENTS Anselm Pagès Muñoz
Shelters and Natural Environment: Some of these shelters can only be placed in one suggested region, while others could be adequate in more than one. You guess! 3 2 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
- Tepees were made from animal skins and were constructed by the Native Americans. Which is which? And which is the easiest to build? 2 3 3 8 4 6 1 7 5 A B C D E F G H - Like tepees, these shelters are movable constructions and were introduced by Mongolian shepherds. - In hot and dry areas homes could be built from, earth, dung, branches and sometimes with baked clay. Roofs tended to be flat. - Regions with heavy rains have shelters built on poles and thatched roofs. The poles keep the dwelling away from the flood. - In the driest areas, homes were made from bundles of dried grass. - Plank wooden houses are usual in cold regions with forests. - In rocky areas, with scarce vegetation, stone constructions are very common. -The Eskimo or Inuit lived in igloos during the winter months.
The underground cities of Cappadocia. The ______ volcanic stone named tufa was ______to carve, and once carved, became _______ when it was exposed to air. Solid and comfortable rooms were connected with galleries of up to five or even six storeys _________. Entire cities were carved out of the stone and more than 20000 people could live in them. They started being inhabited hundreds of years ago and today we can still see wall paintings from the ________ Christian ages in many rooms. harddeepeasyearlysoft Caves. The First Human Dwellings. Ömer Demir. Cappadocia. The Cradle of Civilization.
Answer these questions. What is the region and country where you can see these cities? How was it possible to carve such galleries and rooms? What were their advantages? What decorations are there in their interiors? Life underground could be as pleasant as it was in ordinary houses, and even had a few advantages; temperatures would remain stable and if there were invaders, the dwellers could block the entrances with huge round stones. The galleries had efficient ventilation systems and access to water from the inside. The Underground Cities in Cappadocia. Cappadocia in Turkey The stone was very soft and easy to carve. Temperature remain stable and people could hide from invaders and block the entrances.. Christian paintings from early Christian Ages.
They are lifting material by pulling the rope He is drilling a hole with the help of a bull. A gallery Stairs A well A rope He’s carrying a stone He’s carrying things He is walking in a room He is carving on the wall with a spade. A ventilation hole They are digging a hole. a b d e f h c i j k l m Making an Underground City. What is it? What are they doing? What is it? What is he doing? What are they doing?What are they? Ömer Demir. Cappadocia. The Cradle of Civilization.
RESEARCH PAPER. Find your favourite cave. INTRODUCTION: Pirates hid their treasures in remote caves, but caves can be treasures in themselves. We want you to find one so you can tell us why it is so special. There are hundreds of caves in the world and they can be the result of very different causes. TASKS: Identify 2 different underground cavities and locate them in a world map. Find the causes of their existance. What have they got that make them so special? Have they got a story? Present all these issues with a power-point presentation. PROCESS: Get pictures and write short descriptions. RESOURCES: www.showcaves.com. www.showcaves.com This web page has a lot of links to caves all over the world.
. The tepees were popular dwellings _________Native Americans living _______the Great Plains. They could easily be folded and transported _______ horse, they were easily erected and provided adequate levels of comfort _________ the year. Buffalo skins were stretched and fitted ___________the skeleton of wooden poles leaving two adjustable flaps on the top so as to let smoke _______ from the fire ______ and channel night breeze in during warm Summer nights. The Tipi or Tepee. The entrance is through a flap on the bottom. Tepees were often decorated ______colourful paintings _______ hunting scenes. amonginby throughoutover outwith ofinside
Making a Tepee. Tepees are usually from 3.5 to 6 mts. High. We will build one that will only be one tenth this size. A B B- Once they are set, we position the rest of the poles to make an skeleton of 20 to 30 wooden poles and lash them together at the top. A- The tepee is first set up by bracing 3 poles against one another. http://www.nativeamericans.com http://www.greatdreams.com/native/nativehsg.htm
The Tepee and its Parts. A- The tepee cover is made by stretching dressed and fitted cloth over the skeleton. Flaps E- The cover is secured with stakes into the ground. stakes C D E Flap on the bottom B- Two flaps are left on the top. They are the smoke flaps. The smoke flaps channel the smoke out while preventing cold wind and rain coming in. C- A set of pins keep the cloth together at the central part of the tepee. D- The flap entrance is at the bottom.
They have a round self supportive structure with walls, rafters, a roof ring, tensioning bands and no need for a centre pole; the rafters hold the roof which is traditionally covered with wool or leather. Dried grass, animal hair are used to keep the parts together. A smoke hole or vent is left in the centre so as to let smoke out from the cooking or heating stove. Felt, hand-woven textiles or leather sides are added so as to make it more comfortable in the cold Winter season. In the Summer hot months the flaps over the roof can be opened so as to create a cool air draft. The entrance door is made of wood and goes with its fitted wooden frame. Yurts are the traditional Central Asian nomads’ dwellings and have been used for centuries Mongolian shepherds erect them wherever there are pastures in the large regions. By being round they are efficient to heat and provide less wind resistance than square constructions. Yurts are easy to assemble and disassemble. The Yurt. A- How long have these dwellings been used for? B- What is an advantage of their round shape? C- What materials are they made of? D- Have they got posts as the tepees? E- Can they build a fire inside them? for centuries. they are efficient to heat and provide less wind resistance than square constructions wool or leather. Dried grass, animal hair Felt, hand-woven textilescooking or heating stove. A smoke hole or vent is left in the centre so as to let smoke out from the tensioning bands and no need for a centre pole ; self supportive structure with walls, rafters, a roof ring, wood
The Yurt and its Parts. RAFTER ROOF RING WALL DOOR FRAME 1- WALLS 2- RAFTERS 3- BELLY BANDS. 4- ROOF RING 5- DOOR FRAME 6- CLOTHS, SKINS. - Criss-crossed lattices open out or fold flat. There can be two or three sections that bolt together. - The lattices ends are tied to the door frame. The entrance is here. - They attach the top of the walls at one end and the roof ring at the other. - This goes in the centre and has slots for rafters to fit into. - Two bands are wrapped around to keep it well secured. One band goes at the top and one midway up the wall. LATTICES BAND slots - The lattices and the rafters are covered with cloths or skins. CLOTHS OR SKINS ABC D E F
The Bedouin Black Tents Nomad tribes such as the Berber or the Bedouins move around desert lands looking for grazing so as to feed their sheep and goats or just to carry goods from place to place. These pastoral nomads live in a hard environment characterized by hot days, cold nights, frequent sand storms and minimal resources. With this sort of tent they get relief from exposure to sun, wind and endless openness. The light mobile tents they use, no matter what shape they are, are easily folded and packed. Choosing the right location and taking into account the direction of the prevailing wind is especially important. What is the basic food eaten by these nomad tribes?Goat’s cheese and lamb Temperatures change from day to night. No, They must be sheltered from strong winds Are the temperatures always hot in the desert? Can these tents be erected in any location?
The cloth was traditionally made from goat and camel’s hair as well as from sheep’s wool and skins. Today the cloths would be bought in the towns. c- A narrow strip of cloth is pinned on the sides as exterior wall. Tents can have very different shapes and you can design your own model. Look for samples on the internet. The only condition is that it has to remain in position somewhere outdoors for one week. 1 2 3 b- This simple cover is held by a number of poles and secured with ropes that are attached to stakes, or to bushes hidden under the sand. a- Narrow woven strips of cloth are sewn together so as to make a rectangle roof that is held on poles. Identify the Parts of the Tent with the Numbers. http://www.geographia.com/egypt/sinai/bedouin02.htm
Pre reading questions. - Why is it so cold in the Arctic? - What are the Summer days like in the Arctic? - What do people mainly eat? - Do the Arctic people eat fruit and vegetables? - Were igloos always single and isolated constructions? - Do the igloo builders make blocks of ice in preparing the construction of an igloo? - Draw the required mould to build an igloo. http://content.answers.commsnbcmediawww.forensicgenealogy.com The Igloo and the Arctic Regions
The Arctic Environment. The sun’s rays approach the Arctic/Tundra regions at an oblique angle and their energy is not absorbed. When it is winter above the Arctic Circle, light is by stars, moon, or aurora. Winters are cold for up to six months a year and temperatures only rise above zero degrees during the summer months. Growing crops is not possible because the surface remains frozen (permafrost). However there is a wide variety of animals to hunt. Fishing is a basic means of living. www.scantours.net
The Igloo. When the igloo is finished, a lamp is put inside. The heated air, having no exit, begins to melt the face of the snow blocks, but they rapidly freeze again on admission of cold air from the outside. Each snow block is firmly cemented and converted to ice. Occupation for a few days slowly changes the interiors of the blocks, so that the structure is no longer a snow house but a house of ice. The transformation gives it remarkable stability. Eskimo could enlarge a small circular hut into a community dwelling of 3, 4 or 5 rooms that would house 15 or 20 people. Their homes collapsed in the spring when the ice melt and were built anew, often in different places, each winter. Text and pictures’ source: http://www.kstrom.net/isk/maps/houses/igloo.htmlhttp://www.kstrom.net/isk/maps/houses/igloo.html
SOLUTIONS. - Why is it so cold in the Arctic? - What are the Summer days like in the Artic? - What do people mainly eat? - Do the Arctic people eat fruit and vegetables? - Were igloos always single and isolated constructions? - Do the igloo builders make blocks of ice in preparing the construction of an igloo? - Draw the required mould to build an igloo. www.blogyourmind.info The sun’s rays approach the Arctic/Tundra regions at an oblique angle and their energy is not absorbed. Summer days are long. Temperatures can rise above zero degrees Fish No, they don’t. No, they weren’t. No, they don’t.
Mud and Adobe Houses. One half of the world’s population, approximately 3 billion people on six continents, lives or works in buildings constructed of earth. And adobe is the most popular form of earth construction.. ADOBES OF DIFFERENT SIZES MUD WALLS wikipedia BBC. Lara_dickson_Jacob_buil ding
Mud walls are simply built by pressing damp soil into a mould made out of wood. When one mould is full, another one is filled next to it until the whole wall is complete. Adobes are composed of water, sandy clay and straw or/and dung. Straw is useful in binding the brick together and allowing it to dry evenly. The mixture is shaped into bricks, using wooden frames, and dried ouside; slow drying (out of the sun) avoids cracking. Adobe bricks are of - Have the adobe and mud constructions got foundations? different sizes and their structures are extremely durable when built on solid grounds. Either adobe or mud houses are usually built with no foundations. Mud and adobe constructions are very vulnerable to rain and seismic movements Mud Houses and Adobe Houses. South of Morocco no foundations. - What is the purpose of adding straw to adobes? - What is the main difference between adobe and mud walls? The mixture is shaped into bricks, using wooden frames, and dried outside; slow drying - Are mud and adobe constructions suitable in all sorts of climates? brick together and allowing it to dry evenly. Straw is useful in binding the Mud and adobe constructions are very vulnerable to rain
Make an Adobe Hut. 1- Draw a first design on paper: Think of a plan, a vertical cut away view and the front. The sides and height shouldn’t be more than 40 cms. long 2- Prepare the adobes: Mix soil, clay and grass or straw. Add a little water. When you have a mass, place it into a mould so as to shape and model it into a brick. If it is very regular in shape it will be easier the fit when constructing the walls. Then you may not even need to use mortar. 3- Let it dry in the sun for a minimum of 48 hours. 4– Obtain a supply of materials that can help you to build one yourself such as glue bars, spherical elements, wooden sticks, etc. PLANT VERTICAL CUT
Research paper: Mud and Adobe Constructions. INTRODUCTION: The pyramids have remained to the present day, but what about the dwellings of the workers who built them? Can we still find dwellings like those? TASKS: Describe an adobe building. Find out about cities made of mud. Get information about their natural environment. Locate these dwellings and cities in a world map. Present them on a power point presentation. PROCESS: Write and present pictures of your discoveries. What have they got that make them so special? Have they got a story? http://www.al-bab.com/bys/articles/matthews96.htm Bam. Iran
The Frame. - Decide the materials you will need. Beams Rafters Wall board pole 5 beams 14 rafters 12 poles 2 short poles 4 corner poles 15 wall boards - Bottom frame purlins
Building a hut can be done with branches, bamboo, thatch, stones, mud, grass or any other available material. The use of thatch, bamboo and stones provide adequate insulation in tropical regions with frequent rains and strong solar radiation. The substitution of thatch for tin roofs is a fast, economical solution. Tin roofs, however, have very poor thermal insulating properties and can easily cause overheating. Atilan Lake. Guatemala Thatched Huts. Are tin roofs adequate in regions with high solar radiation? No, they aren’t.
2 The basis of these buildings is a frame, (1) composed of vertical poles (2) and beams,(3) that supports the roof (3). Walls (4) and partitions are attached to the frame. The dwelling (5) is on the platform tied to the posts to increase ventilation and protect the house from moisture, floods and snakes. 13 5 4 A House on Poles. Name the Parts. Drawings: Mirrored in Wood. Irene Moilanen & Sergey S Ozhegoh. White Lotus
The posts provide the stability that would not be achieved in any other way: any platform would sink into the mud. The building is made of wood or bamboo and thatch and specific roofing material made from thatch or from treated palm leaves. If the parts are prepared in advanced, only a few days are needed to finish a house. These constructions can last for many years, but fires are their worst enemy; some houses have a long hooked bamboo pole for pulling off the roof as soon as a fire breaks out. ACTIVITY: Find out about other cities settled on marshlands. Can you find any big cities? Can the buildings be very tall? Lake Inle. MyanmarWhat is their main disadvantage? What is the use of the posts? Are these dwellings durable? What materials are they made of? The posts providestability fires wood bamboothatch palm These constructions can last for many years A House on Marshlands.
Make a Model of a Timber and Thatched Hut. Choose a design. Make a sketch of the frame. Use a ruler and a triangle. Consider the scale differences and make sure that it shouldn’t be more than 30 square centimetres big. beam rafter Bundles of thatch
The Gallarus Oratory in Ireland dated in the 7th century is among the oldest and most beautiful documented constructions in stone. Prehistoric monument in the Shetland islands Stone Constructions. Stone constructions have been built for ages in very many different world regions. Some of the oldest ones can be seen on the Mediterranean island of Minorca or on n the Shetland Islands in the Atlantic.
Stone and thatched hut in the Andes Pallozas in the north of Spain date from pre-Roman times.
Their walls are thick, and their roof is often a vault covered with earth. The door has a larger stone (lintel) that supports the upper parts. The selection of stones and their correct position is essential because most of time these shelters don’t have any mortar to hold the stones together. Stone hut in Garraf, Catalonia What’s their use? The countryside stone huts are among the most primitive man made constructions. They provide shelter to peasants and farmers in very diverse remote areas. They are mostly built in areas where stones need to be removed from the grazing or farming lands. Stones are piled up in walls and terraces that help to divide properties or prevent the land from subsiding. Why are stones piled up in huts, walls and terraces? provide shelter stones need to be removed from the grazing and farming lands to divide properties subsiding. What are the huts like? Their walls are thick, and their roof is often a vault covered with earth. Do they have any cement? most of time these shelters don’t have any mortar to hold the stones together. LINTEL Camp d’Aprenentatge del Bages They prevent the land from Stone Huts
Research Activity: Good and Bad Shelters. Introduction: Shelters, as the majority of dwellings, are designed to meet man’s needs in the face of nature and environment. Good shelters respond to the properties of the place and bring them close to man so dwellers are protected against extreme temperatures, drafts, noise, etc. It is essential for them to be in the right location, to use the right materials and to adopt appropiate shapes: The turf used in an Icelandic house helps to keep it warm in the cold Winter days, just as the thick mud blocks of a North African house provide a cool atmosphere in the hot Summer days and relief from exposure to endless openness. Conditions: Imagine you were on a trip around the world when your plane had to do an emergency landing only a few passangers managed to leave the plane before it went off. The plane landed at one of the locations marked in the map. 1- You have no money, nor passport, nor mobile phone. You need a shelter for you and one or two friends. You don’t know how long you will have to stay there before help arrives. 2- You are in one of the locations marked in the map and you don’t know how long you will have to stay there before help arrives.
Tasks: 1- Decide where the plane dropped you and the time of the year the accident happened. 2- Find out about the climate, the land characteristics of the place. 3- Find out about the most abundant materials you will be able to use. 4- Explain the requirements of a shelter in this precise location. Process: - Split the class in groups of three or in pairs. Students will distribute the reseach tasks among its members. - The students presentation should make a power-point presentation that should include: - A geographical description of the region: Climate, vegetation, etc. - A description of the specific location. - A description of the shelter: Structure, materials, etc. Resources: Maps of the world. Regional maps at scale 1:50000 Plans and pictures of different types of shelters. www.geocities.com/continents_2000 www.enchantedlearning.com/geography/continents/ www.uen.org/curriculum/html/ourworld/index.html www.ri.net/schools/Central_Falls/v/218/t7con.html www.childrensatlas.com/intro.html
Where Am I? LA PAZ EDMONTON BANJUL JAKARTA DOUALA BRASILIA VLADIVOSTOK ALICE SPRINGS WELLINGTON BUENOS AIRES