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PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Tenth Edition Shier  Butler  Lewis Chapter 1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill.

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Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Tenth Edition Shier  Butler  Lewis Chapter 1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill."— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Tenth Edition Shier  Butler  Lewis Chapter 1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1-1

2 Chapter 1 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology 1-2

3 Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy – study of structure Physiology – study of function Structure is always related to function 1-3

4 Levels of Organization Atom – hydrogen atom, lithium atom Molecule – water molecule, glucose molecule Macromolecule – protein molecule, DNA molecule Organelle – mitochondrion, Golgi apparatus Cell – muscle cell, nerve cell Tissue – loose connective tissue, muscle tissue Organ – skin, femur Organ System – skeletal system, digestive system Organism - human 1-4

5 Levels of Organization 1-5

6 Characteristics of Life Movement – change in position; motion Responsiveness – reaction to a change Growth – increase in size Respiration – obtaining oxygen; removing carbon dioxide; releasing energy from foods Reproduction – production of new organisms and new cells 1-6

7 Characteristics of Life Absorption – passage of substances through membranes and into body fluids Circulation – movement of substances in body fluids Assimilation – changing of absorbed substances into different substances Excretion – removal of wastes Digestion – breakdown of food substances 1-7

8 Requirements of Organisms Water - most abundant substance in body - required for metabolic processes - required for transport - regulates body temperature Food - supply energy - supply raw materials 1-8

9 Requirements of Organisms Oxygen - one-fifth of air - used to release energy from nutrients Heat - form of energy - partly controls rate of metabolic reactions Pressure - atmospheric pressure – important for breathing - hydrostatic pressure – keeps blood flowing 1-9

10 Homeostasis Body’s maintenance of a stable internal environment Homeostatic Mechanisms – monitor aspects of the internal environment and corrects any changes Receptors - provide information Control center - tells what a particular value should be Effectors - causes responses to change internal environment 1-10

11 Homeostatic Mechanisms 1-11

12 Body Cavities 1-12

13 Serous Membranes Thoracic Membranes Visceral pleura Parietal pleura Visceral pericardium Parietal pericardium Visceral layer – covers an organ Parietal layer – lines a cavity or body wall Abdominopelvic Membranes Visceral peritoneum Parietal peritoneum 1-13

14 Serous Membranes 1-14

15 Organ Systems 1-15

16 Organ Systems 1-16

17 Organ Systems 1-17

18 Anatomical Terminology Anatomical Position – body standing erect, facing forward, upper limbs at the sides, palms facing forward Terms of Relative Position Superior versus Inferior Anterior versus Posterior Medial versus Lateral Ipsilateral versus Contralateral Proximal versus Distal Superficial versus Deep 1-18

19 Body Sections Sagittal / Midsagittal or Median Transverse / Cross Coronal or Frontal Oblique 1-19

20 Abdominal Subdivisions 1-20

21 Body Regions 1-21

22 Clinical Application Medical Imaging 1-22 Noninvasive procedures Provide images of soft internal structures Magnetic Resonance Imaging Requires injection of dye Produces computerized transverse, frontal, and sagittal sections of area being studied Ultrasonography Use of high- frequency sound waves Relatively quick and inexpensive


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