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1 Athens home.triad.rr.com/warfford/ancient/grkmain.html

2 End of Aristocratic Rule at Athens Athens ruled by handful of noble families Athens ruled by handful of noble families –Eupatrids meaning “well sired” –They formed a ruling council –Eupatrid rule characterized by intense competition –620 BCE – Athenian law codified by Drakon - very harsh (draconian) laws Solon’s solution – early democracy (594BCE) Solon’s solution – early democracy (594BCE) –Solon (Eupatrid) runs for archon based on debt relief and political reform –Elected archon in 594 BCE –Divides Athenians into 4 classes based on wealth (involving male citizens only) 1. Pentekosiomedimnoi – 500 bushel men, 1. Pentekosiomedimnoi – 500 bushel men, 2. Hippeis – Cavalry men, 2. Hippeis – Cavalry men, 3. Zeugetai – Hoplite (foot soldiers) class, 3. Zeugetai – Hoplite (foot soldiers) class, 4. Thetes – everyone else) 4. Thetes – everyone else) –All classes could vote for magistrates, vote in the assembly (Ekklesia), sit on law courts/juries –Top two classes only can run for Archon (chief magistrate –Top class alone can run for strategos (general)

3 The Rule of Peisistratus in Athens Immensely popular tyrant (except with nobles) Immensely popular tyrant (except with nobles) –Did not change the constitution of Solon –Secured loyalty of nobles by appointing them to senior posts Took vote away from Ekklesia (the assembly) Took vote away from Ekklesia (the assembly) –Established circuit judges –Put a 5% tax on agricultural produce funds used to lend to poor farmers funds used to lend to poor farmers –Established major building program –died in 528 BCE – Succeeded by his sons Hippias and Hipparchus V unpopular tyrants who were driven from Athens by Cleisthenes democratic revolution V unpopular tyrants who were driven from Athens by Cleisthenes democratic revolution

4 508 BCE Reforms of Cleisthenes Recognizably democratic Recognizably democratic Replaced economic divisions with geographic divisions Replaced economic divisions with geographic divisions –Which gave poor equal power as rich –Divided Attica (Athens region) into regions (Demes) –centered on villages, each with its own assembly and magistrates Replaced 4 old tribes with 10 new tribes distributed throughout every Deme Replaced 4 old tribes with 10 new tribes distributed throughout every Deme –New Boule (legislative council) of 500 made up of 50 members (elected by lot) from each tribe –Each tribe elected a strategos (general) Designed to fragment the power base of nobles Designed to fragment the power base of nobles Introduced Ostracism Introduced Ostracism –10 year exile of those who were growing too powerful –As a way to keep power from gathering around one or a few men.

5 Reforms of Pericles ( ) Pericles THE great leader following the defeat of Persia – responsible for Athens’ success as a regional power. Pericles THE great leader following the defeat of Persia – responsible for Athens’ success as a regional power. let anyone serve as the archon (one of the nine central leaders of the country) despite birth or wealth. let anyone serve as the archon (one of the nine central leaders of the country) despite birth or wealth. The Assembly became the central power of the state. Consisting of all the free-born (no freed slaves) male citizens of Athens, the Assembly was given sole approval or veto power over every state decision. The Assembly became the central power of the state. Consisting of all the free-born (no freed slaves) male citizens of Athens, the Assembly was given sole approval or veto power over every state decision. The Assembly was not a representative government, but consisted of every male citizen (participatory). The Assembly was not a representative government, but consisted of every male citizen (participatory). In terms of numbers, this still was not a democratic state: women weren't included, nor were foreigners, slaves, or freed slaves. In terms of numbers, this still was not a democratic state: women weren't included, nor were foreigners, slaves, or freed slaves. Pericles also changed the rules of citizenship: Pericles also changed the rules of citizenship: before the ascendancy of Pericles, anyone born of a single Athenian parent was an Athenian citizen; Pericles instituted laws which demanded that both parents be Athenian citizens. before the ascendancy of Pericles, anyone born of a single Athenian parent was an Athenian citizen; Pericles instituted laws which demanded that both parents be Athenian citizens. So, in reality, the great democracy of Periclean Athens was in reality only a very small minority of the people living in Athens. It was, however, the closest human culture has come to an unadulterated democracy. So, in reality, the great democracy of Periclean Athens was in reality only a very small minority of the people living in Athens. It was, however, the closest human culture has come to an unadulterated democracy. elected officials, such as military generals, were not chosen by the Assembly, but the Assembly did hire and fire all other public officials. elected officials, such as military generals, were not chosen by the Assembly, but the Assembly did hire and fire all other public officials. In addition, the Assembly served as a law court hearing major cases. Any decision made in a court of law could be appealed to the Assembly where a court of free citizens would hear the case. There was no standing army, either, as there was in Sparta; free citizens could choose to serve in the military. In addition, the Assembly served as a law court hearing major cases. Any decision made in a court of law could be appealed to the Assembly where a court of free citizens would hear the case. There was no standing army, either, as there was in Sparta; free citizens could choose to serve in the military.

6 Greek Colonization

7 Reasons for Colonization Demographic Pressure Demographic Pressure Land Hunger Land Hunger Drought/agricultural failure Drought/agricultural failure Political Conflict (stasis) Political Conflict (stasis) Trade Trade

8 The Consequences of Colonization The diffusion of Greek cultural forms The diffusion of Greek cultural forms The spread of the Polis system The spread of the Polis system The expansion of trade networks The expansion of trade networks Increased contact with non-Greek peoples Increased contact with non-Greek peoples The growth of a distinctly “Hellenic” identity (esp. Pan-Hellenic Colonies) The growth of a distinctly “Hellenic” identity (esp. Pan-Hellenic Colonies)

9 Cultural Developments of the Archaic Period Pan-Hellenism (i.e. Oracle of Delphi; Olympic Games) Pan-Hellenism (i.e. Oracle of Delphi; Olympic Games) –Things that all polies shared “Orientalizing” Revolution “Orientalizing” Revolution –Colonies established in Asia minor (modern Turkey) Speculative Philosophy Speculative Philosophy –Looked for rational causes for natural events (rather than supernatural) New Directions in Literature New Directions in Literature –Bardic tradition becomes recorded by alphabet (HOMER) –Poetic tradition begins –Religious hymns – the forerunner of theatre

10 Origins of the Olympic Games First Olympic Games held in 776 BCE (first modern games held in 1896) First Olympic Games held in 776 BCE (first modern games held in 1896) Greek athletics predate the Olympics (i.e. Iliad 23) Greek athletics predate the Olympics (i.e. Iliad 23) Only Greeks could participate (i.e. Pan-Hellenic institution) Only Greeks could participate (i.e. Pan-Hellenic institution) Religious celebration in honor of Olympian Zeus Religious celebration in honor of Olympian Zeus Opportunity for aristocratic class to display their arete (fame) Opportunity for aristocratic class to display their arete (fame) Women were excluded from competition Women were excluded from competition Women competed in separate event – The Heraia – In honor of Olympian Hera Women competed in separate event – The Heraia – In honor of Olympian Hera Olympic events Olympic events Horse Race Horse Race Chariot Race Chariot Race Running (Stadion; Diaulos; Dolichos) Running (Stadion; Diaulos; Dolichos) Wrestling Wrestling Boxing Boxing Pankration Pankration Pentathlon (Running, Jumping, Discus, Javelin, Wrestling) Pentathlon (Running, Jumping, Discus, Javelin, Wrestling) Pan-Hellenic games were stephanitic (crown) games Pan-Hellenic games were stephanitic (crown) games Prizes only given to victors (No second place etc.) Prizes only given to victors (No second place etc.) A young boy cut olive branches from sacred olive grove in the Altis A young boy cut olive branches from sacred olive grove in the Altis Made crowns of olives for victors Made crowns of olives for victors Victors allowed to erect statues of themselves at Olympia Victors allowed to erect statues of themselves at Olympia No material value to the prize; conferred Arete and Time on the victor No material value to the prize; conferred Arete and Time on the victor


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