History of image 30.000 years ago, our ancestors painted pictures on the walls of the caves they lived in. 5.000-2.000 years ago, ancient Greeks and Egyptians decorate their pots and paint the walls of houses and tombs. For centuries, artists from all over the world paint and create wonderful paintings, a important cultural heritage to humanity. On 1816 the first photograph was taken by Niepce.
The power of image Image becomes a part of everyday life: It pleases us. It is a part of someone’s religion. It helps us find our way. It protects us. It becomes a part of history. All our life is based on signs and sometimes it seams that it depends on an image.
The power of image… …Vision: one emotional communication
Body Language: It is a broad term for forms of communication using body movements or gestures instead of, or in addition to, sounds, verbal language, or other forms of communication In our daily lives we encounter many forms of body language gestures. These are a few examples: And what about the signs we use to make with our hands and fingers? The meaning is not the same in different cultures!
Nonverbal Behaviour Interpretation Brisk, erect walk Standing with hands on hips Sitting with legs crossed, foot kicking slightly Sitting, legs apart Arms crossed on chest Walking with hands in pockets, shoulders hunched Hand to cheek Touching, slightly rubbing nose Rubbing the eye Locked ankles Head resting in hand, eyes downcast Confidence Readiness, aggression Boredom Open, relaxed Defensiveness Dejection Evaluation, thinking Rejection, doubt, lying Doubt, disbelief Apprehension Boredom
Nonverbal Behaviour Interpretation Rubbing hands Sitting with hands clasped behind head, legs crossed Open palm Pinching bridge of nose, eyes closed Tapping or drumming fingers Steepling fingers Patting/fondling hair Tilted head Stroking chin Looking down, face turned away Biting nails Pulling or tugging at ear Anticipation Confidence, superiority Sincerity, openness, innocence Negative evaluation Impatience Authoritative Lack of self-confidence; insecurity Interest Trying to make a decision Disbelief Insecurity, nervousness Indecision
And what about the signs we use to make with our hands and fingers? The meaning is not the same in different cultures! OK sign: the sign of O with your fingers in Japan means that you want money but for some Mediterranean people implies that someone is homosexual Victory sign: the sign of V in England has to be performed with the palm facing the other person. Otherwise is a very offensive sign. Auto stop sign: the raised thumb in Italy means that you have something dirty in mind! Hello with open palm: never show your open palm to Greek people. They will be offended. When the palms are turned up: it is a sign of diffidence; Turned down palms show authority Opened palms and pointed fingers suggest aggression. When people are happy: they smile, when they are sad: - they scow or pout.The smile shows joy, pleasure and friendliness When the hands are knitted in a lifted-up position: the gesture expresses confidence as it says “I know everything” when the palms are behind the back: it demonstrates superiority, confidence and bravery. Folded arms and fists: express hostility or desire for self-defense; Propped up head with a hand: is sign of boredom Thumbs, thrust in the pockets: express ambitious person; The standard gesture with folded arms: means that the person tries to hide from the others;
Do we believe that pictures have the power to change: The attitude Emotional state Ideals Our life To provoke laugh or a light smile Secret meaning of the words Do we believe in what we can see on the pictureDo we believe in what we can see on the picture The power of the pictures, made with a mobile phone, their ability to gin the momentThe power of the pictures, made with a mobile phone, their ability to gin the moment
The attitude Yes. A picture can make us change our attitude. For example when we look at an advertisement poster in the street. It may influence us to bay something but it also may help us act more responsibly if we are drivers and the poster shows us how to prevent accidents or smokers and the poster tells us that smoking may kill us; Yes! Because it gives the first idea about a person;
Emotional state If I am distressed or unhappy, a funny picture may make me fill better. When I look at the photo of a person I love and he or she is way, I also fill better. But a picture may also make me fill uncomfortable or even guilty. For example if I look at a photo of poor children in Africa, I may fill that I have so many things and don’t appreciate them enough, and they have nothing… That’s a good start to decide to change all wrong things in this world. A picture can inform me. Yes! The friend’s picture arouses remembrances, feelings of love, joy, happiness, but sometimes sorrow;
Ideals A certain picture may make me fill part of a nation. For example, all countries have flags that they appeal to the hearts of people of each nation. Political campaigns use posters to attract people. But also a picture reviling an unknown profile of the political part I believe it may make me dislike it and change it. Or a government may change their way if pictures of guilt come in public. Yes! The misery, the poverty, the pain, the violence, showed on the pictures, has the power to change our ideals and make us revalue the meaning of our life;
Our life A picture can change our life for better or for worst. For better, if I follow health models of life from advertisements. But advertisements also make brainwash… A picture also may make us fall in love, change career, choose another place to live, wonder about things we should never wonder in other way. A picture can make me loose trust to someone I love or destroy my good reputation. Yes !Pictures, that discredit a friend of mine, have a big power over our feelings and make us do something wrong, that could change our life or make us fall in love;
To provoke laugh or a light smile the funny moments always make us laugh and better our mood; If we see something that pleases us, we smile. If a picture is connected with a beloved memory, we smile. It gives us strength to go on! A man working abroad looks at a picture of his family and he keeps working waiting for the day to return home. And who has not laugh with a funny picture with pets or with funny accidents!
Secret meaning of the words A phrase says that a picture equals 1000 words. Sometimes the words are not enough to describe what we fill. Maybe that’s way all Messengers on the Internet use these little cartoons, the “emotions” to help people express what they fill especially when they have problem to use a certain language. Some times a picture works as a trick! It contains a secret meaning. A face, a word, a shape that we cannot find in the first look. There are many pictures that are illusions! Geometrical, artistic, etc. The secret meaning of the words under the pictures shows the age, the habits, and the interests of a person. Both, pictures and text form the first common idea about the per;
Do we believe in what we can see on the picture Do we believe what we see? In Greece we have a phrase: other thing to hear, other thing to see. That means that you can’t be sure for something you heard about. Unless you see it with your own eyes. But that was before Photoshop!!! When we see a picture we may have doubts. Is it real or result of processing? Is there any possibility that a photo is taken from a certain ankle to show for example two people together in a guilty position even they are innocent? If we are not photogenic and in the photos we look ugly, we don’t have to be ugly in life! And a beautiful face in a photo doesn’t have to belong to a person with good character. Who can guess our hobbies and habits from a photo? Do you believe in everything that you see on the picture –not always, the appearance sometimes lies?
The power of the pictures, made with a mobile phone, their ability to gin the moment Pictures from mobile phones usually show people more natural and they don’t give them time to change what they do at the moment the photo was taken and act upon covering it somehow. These pictures are very realistic. The problem appears when someone tries to use these pictures to harm us or to humiliate us. Even to blackmail us. The power of the pictures, done with a mobile phone and their power for taking moments-this kind of pictures are always very emotional. They always present people in an untypical situation and make us laugh, but sometimes they are used from mercenary motives, without the permission of the object.
The power of image… …on line! Information for: Moral rights Digital content Copyrights Responsible use of mobile phones
Copyrights Law of author’s rights Protected objects Clause 3 (1) - an object of author’s rights Photographic products and products made in way that is analogous of the photography. An author-a physical person in a result of his creative activity is made a product. Rights of reward for every kind of use-clause 19-the author has rights of reward for every kind of use of his product and for all serial utilization of the same product. The continuations of the author’s rights-The products are protected till the author is alive and 70 years after his death. To use the products must get the written permission of the bearer of the author’s rights. The name of the author must be named filled in each material that is used.
Copyright is a protection that covers published and unpublished literary, scientific and artistic works, whatever the form of expression, provided such works is fixed in a tangible or material form. This means that if you can see it, hear it and/or touch it - it may be protected. If it is an essay, if it is a play, if it is a song, if it is a funky original dance move, if it is a photograph, HTML coding or a computer graphic that can be set on paper, recorded on tape or saved to a hard drive, it may be protected. Copyright laws grant the creator the exclusive right to reproduce, prepare derivative works, distribute, perform and display the work publicly.
When you see several dates in a copyright statement, it simply means that certain things were created in one year and modified later. It could also mean that new things were created and added in a later year. It most definitely does not refer to the date that a copyright will expire. Expiration of a copyright actually takes place much later, and this period of validity begins from the date that you see in the copyright statement. The law establishes a general and minimum period that lasts the life of the author and 70 years after his (or her) death.
When visiting a web site, it is so easy to click and save with a mouse button when one sees a graphic image that one likes, or to view the source code and copy part of or all of the HTML coding. The general (and incorrect) notion is that anything that is on the Internet is public domain and may be taken without permission from the creator/owner. This is false.
Graphic images provided by "free" or "linkware" graphics sites are not public domain. These images, although provided to you for "free", are not being given to you in ownership. You are being allowed to use them if you comply with the owner's terms and conditions, so make sure that you comply with them in full when you use or display the graphics in question. If the owner says, "don't alter it", don't alter it. If the owner says, "only use for your personal homepage“, only use it for your personal homepage.
Materials included in Lifetime of Copyright Protection: Literary Works Written works. Includes lyrics, tables, compilations, computer programs, letters, memoranda, e-mail and WWW pages. Authors’ life plus 70 years after death. Anonymous / corporation authors: 70 years from year of publication. Special rules for unpublished works. Dramatic Works Plays, works of dance and mime, and also the libretto of an opera. Authors’ life plus 70 years after death. Musical Works Musical scoresAuthors’ life plus 70 years after death. Artistic Works Graphic works (painting, drawing, diagram, map, chart, plan, engraving, etching, lithograph, woodcut), Photographs (not part of a moving film), sculpture, collage, works of architecture (buildings and models for buildings), and artistic craftsmanship (e.g. jewelry). Authors’ life plus 70 years after death.
Databases Collections of independent works, data or other materials which (a) are arranged in a systematic or methodical way, or (b) are individually accessible by electronic or other means. Full term of other relevant copyrights in the material protected. In addition, there is a database right for 15 years (this can roll forward) Films Any medium from which a moving image may be reproduced. 70 years from death of whoever is the last to survive from: principle director, author of dialogue, and composer of film music. Broadcasts Transmissions via wireless telegraphy through the air (not via cable or wires), includes satellite transmissions 50 years from when broadcast first made. Cable Programmes Services via cable.50 years from when broadcast first made Published Editions The typography and layout of a literary, dramatic or musical work. 25 years from first publication.
Moral rights The authors have some moral rights- rights of admission, his products must be saved intact, and his reputation must not be harmed. The author must be admitted as a creator and his product must not be changed or redacted without his permission.
Fair use Fair use or fair practice is utilization of a portion of a copyrighted work "as is" for purposes of parody, news reporting, research and education about such copyrighted work without the permission of the author. Use of copyrighted works, or portions thereof, for any other purpose is not deemed fair use, so be careful! That includes copying text or scanning pictures from postcards, magazines, books or any other work. You still have to credit your source by naming the author of the work on the same page. In any event, it is always safer to take the time and effort to contact the owner and request permission to use the owner's work, and more likely than not the owner will be very appreciative and give you a favorable response.
Many think that one may take someone else's work, whether it be writings, graphic images, midis and the like and use it in an "educational" work without obtaining the author's permission or giving credit because it is "fair use". When you wrote a term paper in school, didn't you credit your sources? Even if you paraphrased the author's original words, or if you feel that you don't need the author's permission because it falls in this vague concept of fair use you must credit your source's hard work by naming your source as a reference. This is a requirement under copyright legislation. If not, you'd be committing plagiarism.
Responsible use of mobile phones Mental cruelty and irritation are actions against a person, which harm him in different forms and reiterate in a various period of the time. The mental cruelty can be word cruelty or a physical contact. Bad intentioned messages electronic letters, phone calls or flip are included in it. For that reason the mobile phones must be used, keeping all the rules and rights of the people.
Digital content Digital photography is passing over language, cultural and national borders and therefore it must be used, keeping all the rules and laws.
Have you ever upload your photos to a Photo- Sharing Web Site? If you have, do you have any idea about how safe this Web Site is? The past few years there has been an increase in the number and popularity of publicly hosted Web sites for sharing digital photos since almost everyone today owns a digital camera or a mobile phone with digital camera. But is it safe to share personal photos on the Internet? Personal photos may contain personal information about us, our family and friends, our interests or hobbies. So, safety means that the personal information, which can be identified and extracted from these photos, is: Private: the access to the information can be restricted to the use of a particular person or group of people and the owner of the information should control who has access to it and Secure: free from danger and risk of loss, i.e., making sure that the bad people cannot access our information.
Photo-sharing Web sites A photo-sharing Web site lets members upload and annotate photos that are posted on its site. Some sites offer these services for free, while others charge a fee, sometimes only for additional storage. In general, these sites make money by charging for prints, cards, and gifts such as calendars or coffee mugs imprinted with the photos. Members can share their photos by sending friends and family the URL of their photo site. Sometimes, visitors must enter a username and password in order to view the pictures and are able to leave comments about the photos they view. Some of the better-known photo-sharing Web sites are: –Webshots (http://www.webshots.com) –Yahoo! Photos (http://photos.yahoo.com) –Shutterfly (http://www.shutterfly.com) –smugmug (http://www.smugmug.com) –Club Photo (http://www.clubphoto.com) –dotPhoto (http://www.dotphoto.com) –Fotopages (http://www.fotopages.com) –Snapfish (http://www.snapfish.com)
“sniffing” data Do people know that someone may “sniff” data as it travel between their computer and the computer at the photo-sharing Web site? There are two ways this may happen: Someone may “sniff” our Internet traffic: someone may target us and watch information sent to and from our computer, such as photos or usernames and passwords, while we upload them to the Web site or view them. It is relatively easy to “sniff” a neighbour’s Internet traffic, particularly if we share the same broadband ISP. ISPs have similar terms-of-service agreements. While these agreements generally prohibit watching other customers’ traffic, it is easy to do so without being detected. Someone may “sniff” the Web site’s Internet traffic: someone may watch traffic to the Web site, such as the usernames and passwords when they entered the site, or the photos, while they were uploaded or viewed.
Passwords While usernames and passwords may seem secure, they are often transmitted to these sites without secure SSL encryption: they are generally encoded with basic authentication, which is not secure and is easy to decode. But can someone guess our password? This is easy to happen if we use a password that is easy to identify, such as one including a birthday, name, or another easy-to-guess choice. Or even the worst case: some people are not sufficiently computer-savvy to realize they should never reveal a password, even to an employee of a legitimate business. Anyone can trick them to reveal their password, pretending to be a Web-site engineer!
Online photo-albums In some photo-sharing Web sites, we can visit other people’s online photo albums. This means that if we post our pictures on this site, any visitor to the site can see them. If we want, we may disable this option, but only after we have create the online photo album. So for some time, at least, all posted photos are public, and we must do something specific to mark our photos as private. In other cases if we send a photo-sharing invitation, any recipient of that invitation could view that album even if it is set to private and anyone who can access the e-mail invitation can, by extension, access our personal photos on a Web site. Visitors can also search other people’s pages by country, or even input any term, such as a name or a location into the site’s search facility. This makes it easier to find specific information about a person or a place.
Personal information When we post personal information on the Internet, we do so with a specific purpose in mind, such as sharing personal photos with our friends and family, or promoting our business. But once personal information is freely available on the Internet, we lose control and knowledge of how it ultimately will be used. Although usernames and passwords give us feeling of control, this is illusory, since that information is not sent securely, and in any case Web site employees can access our personal information. Or sometimes, personal photos become publicly accessible because of a problem with the software at the Web site. Any publicly accessible Web site is an unsafe place for personal or private information. Personal photos can powerfully convey a lot of information to those close to us, but when that information is not safeguarded, it may convey this same information to those who would harm us. Identifying details in pictures can be very dangerous. In addition, some photo-sharing sites let us annotate our pictures, and some sites let visitors leave publicly viewable comments. This is very dangerous, because even if we are careful about annotating pictures in a non-identifying way (without names and locations, for example), visitors to our site who share this knowledge may not be as careful.
Protection Conclusion: since other people can access our photos on photo- sharing sites, without our consent or knowledge, these sites are neither private nor secure. Therefore, they are not a safe place to store personal information. How to protect ourselves: By avoiding putting any personal information on the Internet. By making CDs containing personal photos and videos and distribute those to friends and family in person or by mail. By insisting that any photo sharing site where we post pictures uses secure SSL encryption for transmitting usernames and passwords and data. Plus: By posting personal photos only on a Web site hosted on our computer. This way, we control the information, and the access to it. This also prevents Web site employees from accessing our personal information. By insisting on secure passwords and treat them securely: use usernames and passwords to control who can access our personal information and not distribute them by e-mail, which is not secure, but by phone. By using SSL when transmitting sensitive information such as usernames and passwords as well as the personal information on our site.
The power of image… …is the power of living together, of comprehend each other, of being supportive, of being friends! Thank you very much!