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Review Chapters 1 - 3 Instrument Currency “To act as PIC of an aircraft on an IFR flight plan, one must have logged (within the preceding 6 months):

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Presentation on theme: "Review Chapters 1 - 3 Instrument Currency “To act as PIC of an aircraft on an IFR flight plan, one must have logged (within the preceding 6 months):"— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Review Chapters 1 - 3

3 Instrument Currency “To act as PIC of an aircraft on an IFR flight plan, one must have logged (within the preceding 6 months): –6 approaches –holding –intercepting and tracking navigation courses –or passed an IPC

4 Currency 3 approaches, navigation, holding Need IPC

5 Aeronautical Decision Making D etect a change E stimate what is needed C hoose a successful outcome I dentify actions required D o the necessary E valuate

6 Hazardous attitudes Anti-authority –rules and procedures are unnecessary Macho –best pilot Impulsivity –first action that comes to mind

7 Hazardous Attitudes Invulnerability –bulletproof Resignation –What’s the use?

8 Vestibular Disorientation Coriolis illusion(in turn move head) Graveyard spiral Leans Somatogravic illusion (acceleration = climb) Inversion illusion (climb to S&L= backwards)

9 Disorientation To prevent disorientation, one must rely on instruments, not body signals.

10 Hypoxia Hypoxic –high altitudes Hypemic –CO, anemia, smoking Stagnant –high G’s Histotoxic –alcohol, drugs

11 Hyperventilation Drowsiness Dizziness Shortness of breath Feelings of suffocation

12 Fundamental Skills l Cross Check l Instrument Interpretation l Aircraft Control

13 Fundamental Concepts Rigidity in Space - a wheel with a heavily weighted rim spun rapidly tends to remain fixed in the plane in which it is spinning Precession - when an outside force is applied the gyro responds as if the force had been applied at a point 90 0 further around in the direction of rotation

14 Instrument Checks With the power off, warning flags display OFF indications Inclinometer full of fluid and ball at lowest point Turn on master and listen for grinding noise in electric gyros After starting check ammeter

15 Instrument Checks Listen for noise from vacuum gyros If you think you hear noise, shut off the engine and listen to the gyros spin down It can take 5 minutes for the gyros to reach full operating speed

16 Instrument Checks While taxing out, the turn coordinator and heading indicator should indicate a turn in the correct direction The ball should swing to the outside in turns Align the heading indicator with the magnetic compass during runup and check again before takeoff

17 Magnetic Compass Errors –Variation - the angular difference between the true and magnetic pole –Deviation - errors due to magnetic interference with the metal components of the aircraft –Magnetic dip - the compass tries to point down deep inside the earth

18 Pitot Static Instruments Airspeed Indicator Vertical Speed Indicator Altimeter

19 Types of Airspeeds Indicated - displays the speed of your plane. It is the basis for determining your aircraft performance Calibrated is indicated corrected for installation and instrument error Equivalent airspeed is calibrated airspeed corrected for adiabatic compressible flow at a particular altitude

20 Types of Airspeeds True Airspeed is the actual speed your airplane moves through the air. The calibrated airspeed corrected for density altitude Mach is the ratio of the aircraft’s true speed to the speed of sound

21 Types of Altitude Indicated - is what you read on the altimeter Pressure - is displayed when you have the altimeter set to It is the vertical distance above the standard datum plane Density - pressure corrected for nonstandard temperature

22 Types of Altitude True - is the actual height of an object above mean sea level. Absolute - is the actual height of the aircraft above the earth’s surface

23 System Errors Can be caused by blockage of the pitot tube, static port or both Blockages can be caused by moisture, ice, dirt or even insects Use pitot tube cover when parked Use pitot heat when flying in visible moisture

24 Pitot Blockage Ram air inlet clogged, drain hole open pressure in line to airspeed indicator drops to zero, airspeed indicator indicates 0 Ram air inlet clogged, drain hole clogged, air trapped in line, airspeed indicator does not react to changes in speed but altitude like an altimeter

25 Static Blockage Airspeed indicator will continue to react to changes in airspeed but they will not be accurate Altimeter will freeze in place VSI will freeze at zero Use alternate static source or break glass in VSI

26 VOR Receiver Checks l VOT –180 o TO, 360 o FROM; +/- 4 o l VOR Ground Checkpoint – Indicated radial; +/- 4 o l VOR Airborne Checkpoint – Indicated radial; +/- 6 o –Centerline of airway; +/- 6 o l Dual VOR Check –Within 4 o

27 Using the VOR Basic VOR Indicator – each dot on CDI is 2 o –full scale deflection is 10 o – 1 deg in 60 nm is 1 nm –OBS Horizontal Situation Indicator HSI –incorporates HI, CDI, Glideslope –makes easier to scan –not reverse sensing except for using on BC

28 ADF Navigation l Ground based transmitter l Low/medium frequency (AM) l Non-directional beacon (NDB) l Not line of sight l No receiver checks l No flags - listen to Morse code

29 What should be the indication on the magnetic compass as you roll into a standard rate turn to the left from an east heading in the Northern Hemisphere? A. The compass will indicate the approximate correct magnetic heading if the roll into the turn is smooth. B. The compass will initially indicate a turn to the right. C. The compass will remain on east for a short time, then gradually catch up to the magnetic heading of the aircraft.

30 What should be the indication on the magnetic compass as you roll into a standard rate turn to the left from an east heading in the Northern Hemisphere? A. The compass will indicate the approximate correct magnetic heading if the roll into the turn is smooth.

31 A.1 I05 On what headings will the magnetic compass read most accurately during a level 360° turn, with a bank of approximately 15°? A. 135° through 225°. B. 90° and 270°. C. 180° and 0°.

32 A.1 I05 On what headings will the magnetic compass read most accurately during a level 360° turn, with a bank of approximately 15°? B. 90° and 270°.

33 A.1 L57 What indication should a pilot observe if an airspeed indicator ram air input and drain hole are blocked? A. The airspeed indicator will show a decrease with an increase in altitude. B. The airspeed indicator will react as an altimeter. C. No airspeed indicator change will occur during climbs or descents.

34 A.1 L57 What indication should a pilot observe if an airspeed indicator ram air input and drain hole are blocked? B. The airspeed indicator will react as an altimeter.

35 A.1 I05 What would be the indication on the VSI during entry into a 500 FPM actual descent from level flight if the static ports were iced over? A. The VSI pointer would remain at zero regardless of the actual rate of descent. B. The indication would be in reverse of the actual rate of descent (500 FPM climb). C. The initial indication would be a climb, then descent at a rate in excess of 500 FPM.

36 A.1 I05 What would be the indication on the VSI during entry into a 500 FPM actual descent from level flight if the static ports were iced over? A. The VSI pointer would remain at zero regardless of the actual rate of descent.

37 How should you preflight check the altimeter prior to an IFR flight? A. Set the altimeter first with 29.92" Hg and then the current altimeter setting. The change in altitude should correspond to the change in setting. B. Set the altimeter to the current altimeter setting. The indication should be within 75 feet of the actual elevation for acceptable accuracy. C. Set the altimeter to the current temperature. With current temperature and the altimeter indication, determine the calibrated altitude to compare with the field elevation.

38 How should you preflight check the altimeter prior to an IFR flight? B. Set the altimeter to the current altimeter setting. The indication should be within 75 feet of the actual elevation for acceptable accuracy.

39 A.1 I04 The pressure altitude at a given location is indicated on the altimeter after the altimeter is set to A. the field elevation. B " Hg. C. the current altimeter setting.

40 A.1 I04 The pressure altitude at a given location is indicated on the altimeter after the altimeter is set to B " Hg.

41 What is the procedure for setting the altimeter when assigned an IFR altitude of 18,000 feet or higher on a direct flight off airways? A. Set the altimeter to the current altimeter setting until reaching the assigned altitude, then set to 29.92" Hg. B. Set the altimeter to the current reported setting for climbout and 29.92" Hg upon reaching 18,000 feet. C. Set the altimeter to 29.92" Hg before takeoff.

42 What is the procedure for setting the altimeter when assigned an IFR altitude of 18,000 feet or higher on a direct flight off airways? B. Set the altimeter to the current reported setting for climbout and 29.92" Hg upon reaching 18,000 feet..

43 A.1 I22 Under what condition will true altitude be lower than indicated altitude with an altimeter setting of 29.92" Hg? A. When density altitude is higher than indicated altitude. B. In colder than standard air temperature. C. In warmer than standard air temperature.

44 A.1 I22 Under what condition will true altitude be lower than indicated altitude with an altimeter setting of 29.92" Hg? B. In colder than standard air temperature.

45 A.1 I04 One characteristic that a properly functioning gyro depends upon for operation is the A. resistance to deflection of the spinning wheel or disc. B. deflecting force developed from the angular velocity of the spinning wheel. C. ability to resist precession 90° to any applied force.

46 A.1 I04 One characteristic that a properly functioning gyro depends upon for operation is the A. resistance to deflection of the spinning wheel or disc.

47 What pretakeoff check should be made of the attitude indicator in preparation for an IFR flight? A. The horizon bar does not vibrate during warmup. B. The horizon bar should erect and become stable within 5 minutes. C. The miniature airplane should erect and become stable within 5 minutes.

48 What pretakeoff check should be made of the attitude indicator in preparation for an IFR flight? B. The horizon bar should erect and become stable within 5 minutes.

49 A.1 I05 If a 180° steep turn is made to the right and the aircraft is rolled out to straight and level flight by visual reference, the miniature aircraft will A. show a slight climb and turn to the right. B. show a slight skid and climb to the right. C. show a slight climb and turn to the left.

50 A.1 I05 If a 180° steep turn is made to the right and the aircraft is rolled out to straight and level flight by visual reference, the miniature aircraft will C. show a slight climb and turn to the left.

51 A.1 L59 Prior to starting an engine, you should check the turn and slip indicator to determine if the A. needle is approximately centered and the tube is full of fluid. B. needle indication properly corresponds to the angle of the wings or rotors with the horizon. C. ball will move freely from one end of the tube to the other when the aircraft is rocked.

52 A.1 L59 Prior to starting an engine, you should check the turn and slip indicator to determine if the A. needle is approximately centered and the tube is full of fluid.

53 A.1 I05 What does the miniature aircraft of the turn coordinator directly display? A. Rate of roll and rate of turn. B. Angle of bank. C. Angle of bank and rate of turn.

54 A.1 I05 What does the miniature aircraft of the turn coordinator directly display? A. Rate of roll and rate of turn.

55 A.1 J05 Which runway marking indicates a displaced threshold on an instrument runway? A. Centerline dashes starting at the threshold. B. Arrows leading to the threshold mark. C. Red chevron marks in the nonlanding portion of the runway.

56 A.1 J05 Which runway marking indicates a displaced threshold on an instrument runway? B. Arrows leading to the threshold mark.

57 A.1 J03 If an approach is being made to a runway that has an operating 3 bar VASI and all the VASI lights appear red as the airplane reaches the MDA, the pilot should A. level off momentarily to intercept the proper approach path. B. continue at the same rate of descent if the runway is in sight. C. start a climb to reach the proper glidepath.

58 A.1 J03 If an approach is being made to a runway that has an operating 3 bar VASI and all the VASI lights appear red as the airplane reaches the MDA, the pilot should A. level off momentarily to intercept the proper approach path.

59 A.1 J03 Which is a feature of the tricolor VASI? A. Three glidepaths, with the center path indicated by a white light. B. One light projector with three colors: red, green, and amber. C. Two visual glidepaths for the runway.

60 A.1 J03 Which is a feature of the tricolor VASI? B. One light projector with three colors: red, green, and amber.

61 What is the purpose of FDC NOTAMs? A. To advise of changes in flight data which affect instrument approach procedure (IAP), aeronautical charts, and flight restrictions prior to normal publication. B. To provide the latest information on the status of navigation facilities to all FSS facilities for scheduled broadcasts. C. To issue notices for all airports and navigation facilities in the shortest possible time.

62 What is the purpose of FDC NOTAMs? A. To advise of changes in flight data which affect instrument approach procedure (IAP), aeronautical charts, and flight restrictions prior to normal publication.

63 What response is expected when ATC issues an IFR clearance to pilots of airborne aircraft? A. Read back those parts containing altitude assignments or vectors and any part requiring verification. B. Read back the entire clearance as required by regulation. C. Read back should be unsolicited and spontaneous to confirm that the pilot understands all instructions.

64 What response is expected when ATC issues an IFR clearance to pilots of airborne aircraft? A. Read back those parts containing altitude assignments or vectors and any part requiring verification.

65 A.1 J14 Which clearance items are always given in an abbreviated IFR departure clearance? (Assume radar environment.) A. Altitude, destination airport, and one or more fixes which identify the initial route of flight. B. Clearance limit, DP Name, Number, and/or Transition, if appropriate. C. Destination airport, altitude, DP Name, Number, and/or Transition, if appropriate.

66 A.1 J14 Which clearance items are always given in an abbreviated IFR departure clearance? (Assume radar environment.) C. Destination airport, altitude, DP Name, Number, and/or Transition, if appropriate.

67 What is the significance of an ATC clearance which reads "...CRUISE SIX THOUSAND...''? A. It authorizes a pilot to conduct flight at any altitude from minimum IFR altitude up to and including 6,000. B. The pilot is authorized to conduct flight at any altitude from minimum IFR altitude up to and including 6,000, but each change in altitude must be reported to ATC. C. The pilot must maintain 6,000 until reaching the IAF serving the destination airport, then execute the published approach procedure.

68 What is the significance of an ATC clearance which reads "...CRUISE SIX THOUSAND...''? A. It authorizes a pilot to conduct flight at any altitude from minimum IFR altitude up to and including 6,000.

69 A.1 J13 When should pilots state their position on the airport when calling the tower for takeoff? A. When departing from a runway intersection. B. When visibility is less than 1 mile. C. When parallel runways are in use.

70 A.1 J13 When should pilots state their position on the airport when calling the tower for takeoff? A. When departing from a runway intersection.

71 Upon intercepting the assigned radial, the controller advises you that you are on the airway and to "RESUME OWN NAVIGATION.'' This phrase means that A. radar services are terminated and you will be responsible for position reports. B. you are still in radar contact, but must make position reports. C. you are to assume responsibility for your own navigation.

72 Upon intercepting the assigned radial, the controller advises you that you are on the airway and to "RESUME OWN NAVIGATION.'' This phrase means that C. you are to assume responsibility for your own navigation.

73 A.1 J15 For which speed variation should you notify ATC? A. When the groundspeed changes more than 5 knots. B. Any time the groundspeed changes 10 MPH. C. When the average true airspeed changes 5 percent or 10 knots, whichever is greater.

74 A.1 J15 For which speed variation should you notify ATC? C. When the average true airspeed changes 5 percent or 10 knots, whichever is greater.

75 A.1 J07 Class G airspace is that airspace where A. the minimum visibility for VFR flight is 3 miles. B. ATC does not control air traffic. C. ATC controls only IFR flights.

76 A.1 J07 Class G airspace is that airspace where B. ATC does not control air traffic.

77 MOAs are established to A. prohibit all civil aircraft because of hazardous or secret activities. B. separate certain military activities from IFR traffic. C. restrict civil aircraft during periods of high density training activities.

78 MOAs are established to B. separate certain military activities from IFR traffic.


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