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GRASS.  Synonim: Paspalum compressum (Sw.) Nees, Paspalum platycaule Willd. ex Steud., Paspalum platycaulon Poir  Local name: Rumput pahitan Rumput.

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Presentation on theme: "GRASS.  Synonim: Paspalum compressum (Sw.) Nees, Paspalum platycaule Willd. ex Steud., Paspalum platycaulon Poir  Local name: Rumput pahitan Rumput."— Presentation transcript:

1 GRASS

2  Synonim: Paspalum compressum (Sw.) Nees, Paspalum platycaule Willd. ex Steud., Paspalum platycaulon Poir  Local name: Rumput pahitan Rumput karpet  Native: USA (south east part), Indonesia, West India, African Tropics

3  Perennial plant, spreading by stolon  often used as a permanent pasture, ground cover and turf in moist, low fertility soils, particularly in shaded situations.  It is generally too low growing to be useful in cut-and-carry systems or for fodder conservation

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5  Grow well on tropical and sub-tropical area with high humidity  Prefer to grow well on sandy land or clay land which rich of humus  Planting at 25 x 25 cm in lenght (tillers)

6  Synonim: Brachiaria eminii Brachiaria bequaertii  Local name: Rumput Signal  Native: Uganda, Africa

7  Perennial grass, A stoloniferous base and roots developing from the lower nodes producing a dense sward  The erect stems arise from a long stoloniferous base  The leaflet color: dark green with smooth hair  At first time the growth of grass is so hard but after this hard to control  To control, should be cut or by grazing (stocked heavily)

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9  a grass of the wet tropics, but it has good drought tolerance and is adapted to a dry season of four or five months.  However, it prefers 1,500 mm or more of rain.  It does not do well where the dry season is more than five months, but is more productive than Brachiaria mutica in the late dry season.

10  Responsive to the addition of N fertilizer and heavy grazing  It can grow well at slope land, pH 6-7  Show rapid regrowth and good persistence under heavy or frequent defoliation

11  Synonim: Panicum muticum Forsk. P. purpurascens Raddi.  Local name: Rumput Para  Native: African Tropics

12  A short-culmed, stoloniferous perennial up to 200 cm high with long, hairy leaf-blades about 16 mm wide.  Panicle cm long with solitary racemose or compound branches and glabrous, acute, irregularly multiseriate spikelets mm long (Napper, 1965).

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14  Distribution tropical areas of Africa and America, now introduced into most tropical countries.  Season of growth: A summer perennial.  Altitude range: Sea-level to m.  Adapted to high-rainfall tropical and subtropical conditions, but in protected areas it can persist with rainfall as low as 900 mm per year.  It usually tolerates general drought by reason of its specific swampy environment, being maintained by the residual moisture from the wet season.  It prefers alluvial and hydromorphic soils but will grow on a wide range of moist soil types.

15  Synonim: Urochloa ruziziensis (R. Germ. and C.M. Evrard) Crins.  Local name: Rumput ruzi  Native: Congo, Kenya, and Africa

16  Late flowering perennial similar to B. decumbens, but with the lower glume distant from the rest of the spikelet.  Light-green broad hairy leaves and flowers.  Cultivated in the humid tropics for pasture

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18  Requires light to loam soils of moderately high fertility (pH 5.0–6.8) and cannot tolerate strongly acid conditions  For the lowlands and up to 2,000 m in the humid tropics, with a minimum of 1,200 mm AAR.  It can tolerate a dry season of 4 months but will die out in extended dry conditions.  Having poor tolerance to flooding, it thrives best on well-drained soils  It can stand moderately heavy grazing and requires high levels of fertilizing to persist under frequent cutting. Responsive to N addition

19  Synonim: Pennisetum cenchroides Rich. P. ciliare (L.) Link.  Local name: Rumput buffel  Native: India, Indonesia, African Tropics

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21  tufted (sometimes shortly rhizomatous) perennial, with types ranging in habit from ascendant to erect, and branching culms from about m at maturity.  sometimes hairy at the base  Deep, strong, fibrous root system to >2 m.

22  often occurs in the wild on sandy soils, but is also well adapted to deep, freely draining sandy loam, loam, clay loam, and red earth soils.  it most drought tolerant of the commonly sown grasses,  It occurs naturally in areas with average annual rainfall from as low as 100 mm up to about 1,000 mm, but most commonly between 300 and 750 mm  Very tolerant of regular cutting or heavy grazing.

23  Synonim: Panicum dactylon, Capriola dactylon Local name: Rumput Gerinting Rumput Bermuda  Native: India

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25  A variable perennial,  creeping by means of stolons and rhizomes,  eight to 40 culms, (rarely) to 90 cm high: leaves hairy or glabrous

26  It has been introduced to all tropical and subtropical, and some temperate regions of the world.  Grows on a wide range of soils, but best in relatively fertile, well-drained soils.  Usually occurs over an average annual rainfall range of 625-1,750 mm, but down to 550 mm, and up to 4,300 mm.

27  Synonim: Leptochloa plectostachyus K. Schum.  Local name: Rumput Afrika (African Star Grass)  Native: East Africa

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29  A largely robust, sometimes fine, stoloniferous (non-rhizomatous), deep-rooted group of perennials.  It is tolerant of heavy grazing.

30  Grow on a wide range of soil types from sands to heavy clays  It grows in areas with an average annual rainfall between about 500 and 800 mm

31  Local name: Pangola grass  Native: South Africa African Tropics

32  A stoloniferous perennial  Having the culms much branched, usually decumbent, and often rooting from the lower nodes  Height around 100 cm

33  Pangola grass will grow over a wide range of soils on wet sands or heavy clays and at low fertility levels.  It will survive droughts fairly well if established, but will not be productive  Once pangola grass is established it spreads very rapidly by stolons. . It does not produce viable seeds.

34  Local name: Rumput lulangan Rumput jukut Rumput jampang

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36  Perennial grass, cm tall  It has a particularly tough root system and is hard to pull out

37  Distribution: tropical and subtropical regions  It can be made into coarse hay and silage

38  Synonim: Trachypogon rufus Nees; Andropogon rufus (Nees) Kunth (Wagner et al.1999)  Local name: Rumput jaragua  Native: Africa

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40 Description  A very variable perennial from cm high  The flowering stems have little leaf Adaptation  It survives well into drought  Good ­ on retentive soils withstands a dry season of six months

41  Local name: Rumput Benta Jukut lambeta Rico grass

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43  Stoloniferous perennial  It makes quite good hay but is difficult to harvest from swamps and is usually cut when swamps dry out  Distribution: throughout the tropics and subtropics.  It survives well into drought until the swamps dry out

44  Synonim: Melinis tenuinervis Stapf Panicum melinis Trin. Panicum minutiflorum (P. Beauv.) Raspail  Local name: Rumput Molasses  Native: African Tropics

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46  Tufted perennial up to 150 cm high, often sticky, with a characteristic odour of molasses or cumin.  fertile culms erect or geniculately ascending  Inflorescence a panicle cm long, with racemes initially appressed, spreading to present a pale pink to purple plume effect at anthesis  Seedling vigour: Excellent. It establishes quickly

47  It needs moderate to high rainfall in excess of 750 mm. The normal range is 960 to mm (Russell & Webb, 1976).  Relatively drought-hardy over a dry season of four to five months.  It is tolerant to soils of fairly low fertility.  When mature it will burn so fiercely that its own seeds and roots are killed

48  Synonim: Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq.) B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs Urochloa maxima (Jacq.) R.D.Webster Panicum hirsutissimum Steud  Local name: Rumput Benggala Rumput Guinea  Native: Africa Indian Ocean Asian

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50  A tufted perennial, often with a shortly creeping rhizome, variable cm high  panicle cm long, open spikelets mm long, obtuse, mostly purple red, glumes unequal, the lower one being one-third to one- fourth as long as the spikelet

51  It will grow on a large range of soils, but produces poor stands on infertile types.  It is well adapted to sloping, cleared land in rain forest areas where it will support heavy stocking. It will tolerate acid conditions if drainage is good.  It does not tolerate waterlogging  It will not tolerate heavy frosts, but recovers from light frosts with the return of warm weather

52  Local name: Rumput torpedo  Native: Tropical and North Africa Mediterranean (sometimes said to be native to Asia).

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54  A rhizomatous, creeping perennial, rooting at the base, cm tall  It is extremely palatable and nutritious over a long growing season, but at the mature stage the old leaves tend to become tough (Thorp, 1979) and are neglected by stock

55  It tolerates drought, as the rhizomes remain alive in long dry periods  Generally found on sandy soils, but some strains grow on heavy clay. The soils are always wet and of alluvial origin  Panicum repens grows well even after several days in standing water. It is frequent on lake edges, edges of dams and in swamps throughout the tropics (Sayer & Lavieren, 1975).  Tolerance to salinity: Very good

56  Local name: Rumput plicatulum  Native: Guatemala, Venezuela

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58  Tufted perennial, with open, tussocky habit, up to 1.2 m high  Leaves usually about 40 cm long, 10 mm wide, folded at the base, pilose on the upper surface at base near margins, glabrous toward the top; leaf-sheaths glabrous, ligule 1.5 mm long.

59  Rainfall requirements: At least 760 mm, preferably more than mm up to mm a year (Russell & Webb, 1976).  It is tolerant of a wide range of soils, including soils of low fertility which are too poor  It grows well on strongly acid to neutral, poorly drained clay loams and on excessively drained deep sandy soils (Leithead, Yarlett & Shiflet, 1971)

60  Local name: Buffalo grass Jampang pahit  Native: American tropics

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62  A vigorous, creeping perennial with long stolons, rooting at nodes, with culms ascending to erect, 40-80(-100) cm tall, branching, solid, slightly compressed.  It is used as a forage for grazing or in cut-and- carry systems, and is rated as a very important natural pasture grass in coconut plantations.  The palatability declines rapidly after flowering  It is stated that only the young stage of the grass is suitable for grazing since the fruits tend to stick in the throats of livestock and choke them

63  It is adapted to a wide range of soils  It grows from near sea- level up to 1700 m altitude in open to moderately shaded places.  It is adapted to humid climates.

64  Synonim: Digitaria dilatata (Poir.) H.J. Coste Paspalum eriophorum Schult. Paspalum lanatum Spreng. Paspalum ovatum Nees ex Trin. Paspalum ovatum var. grandiflorum Nees Paspalum pedunculare J. Presl Paspalum platense Spreng. Paspalum selloi Spreng. ex Nees Paspalum velutinum Trin. ex Nees  Local name: Rumput australi Native: humid subtropics of southern Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay

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66  A leafy, tufted perennial with clustered stems arising from shortly creeping rhizomes; culms to 1 m; inflorescence of 3-5 racemes; spikelets ovate, about 3 mm long, fringed with silky hairs (Henty, 1969).

67  It requires a minimum of about 750 mm of annual rainfall; does best in a rainfall of about mm, and in irrigated pastures. Maximum recorded, mm (Russell & Webb, 1976)  The underground root-stock gives it considerable drought tolerance once it is established  It grows best in heavy, moist, fertile, alluvial and basaltic clay soils

68  Synonim: Pennisetum benthamii Steud  Local name: Rumput gajah Napier Grass  Native: Africa

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70  A robust perennial with a vigorous root system, sometimes stoloniferous with a creeping rhizome.  Culms usually cm high, branched upwards. Leaf-sheaths glabrous or with tubercle-based hairs; leaf-blades mm wide, margins thickened and shiny.  Inflorescence a bristly false spike up to 30 cm long, dense, usually yellow-brown in colour, more rarely purplish (Chippendall, 1955).

71  Grows on a wide range of soil types provided fertility is adequate.  Grows best in deep, well-drained friable loams with a pH of (mean 6.2).  No readily available data on tolerance of salinity or high levels of Al and Mn.  It survives drought quite well when established because of its deep root system.

72  Synonim: Setaria anceps Stapf.  Local name: Rumput setaria  Native: Africa

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74  Perennial tussock to 2 m tall, with short rhizomes.  Leaves bluish grey-green, leaf blades soft, glabrous, to 50 cm long and up to about 1 cm wide.  Lower parts of culms and the basal leaf- sheaths flattened.  Inflorescence a tightly contracted panicle producing a false spike.

75  Most commonly found on soils with texture ranging from sand to clay loam and light clay, but will grow on heavy clay.  Survives low fertility conditions but responds to improved fertility.  Not well adapted to alkaline or very acid soils, most wild collections coming from soils of pH  Generally low salt tolerance  'Kazungula' is the most tolerant of poor sandy and stony soils. 'Nandi' and 'Narok' prefer medium-textured, fertile soils.

76  Local name: Rumput Sudan  Native: Sudan, Africa

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78  slender annual with leafy stems up to 3 m high that grows on a variety of soils in areas with mm of rain annually.  Drought resistant. Cultivated primarily for hay or as a pioneer grass.  With good fertility, yields two to five cuttings of very palatable fodder.  May contain prussic acid when green

79  Synonim: Zea mays L. subsp. mexicana (Schrad.) H. H. Iltis  Local name: Teosinte Rumput Mexico  Native: Central America Mexico

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81  Synonim: Brachiaria stolonifera Gooss. Echinochloa notabile (Hook. f.) Rhind. Panicum mosambicense Hack. Urochloa pullulans Stapf, nom. illeg. Urochloa stolonifera (Gooss.) Chippind.  Local name: Rumput Sabi  Native: Africa

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83  A perennial, variable in size and habit (Burt et al., 1980)  sometimes stoloniferous or with a creeping rhizome.  Culms 120 cm or more high, sometimes rooting and branched from the lower nodes.

84  It is drought enduring.  It will grow in a wide range of soils, from clay loams to sands, but appears to be more suitable for lighter soils with relatively high fertility.  It can tolerate both acid and alkaline soils.  Tolerant of light shade.

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