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Enlightenment class slides A-2

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1 Enlightenment class slides A-2

2 Voltaire Francois-Marie Arouet
Playwright Known for criticism of traditional religion Also known for support of religious tolerance

3 Significant Ideas All Christians should tolerate one another
~Everyone is brothers in the eyes of God ~God made religion, therefore he will sustain it Persecutors only punish people because they have different opinions on things ~People who persecute others are evil in the eyes of God ~Persecutors destroy the work of God People criticize their own reforms regarding superstition ~People believe in witchcraft even though they pride themselves in getting rid of superstition

4 Quotations Explained “Christians ought to tolerate one another We ought to look upon all men as our brothers” “What is tolerance? Of all religions, the Christian ought doubtless to inspire the most tolerance” “What is a persecutor? He whose wounded pride and furious fanaticism arouse princes and magistrates against innocent men, whose only crime is that of being of a different opinion”

5 A plea for Tolerance and Reason
Voltaire A plea for Tolerance and Reason Brianna Klinger and Amy Bishop

6 Francois Marie Arouet, who lived from 1694-1778, was known to the world as Voltaire.
He was the recognized leader of the French Enlightenment, and very few of the philosophies had a better mind and none had a sharper wit.

7 Tolerance: Voltaire mentions that to have tolerance, you must accept others for who they are, whether it be their weakness’ and errors or their religion. He explains that all people are God’s creations and therefore they are all brothers. Voltaire wrote about how wars were never started because of tolerance, they were started because of the intolerance of people. He also writes about how everyone should be allowed to believe in what they will, as long as it does not disturb the public order. And as long as this is maintained, then everyone should be tolerant of each other. Voltaire’s pleas for tolerance were mainly directed towards Christians. Persecution: Persecution involves the way in wish someone acts towards other people, negatively. A persecutor is someone who commits a crime, or does something bad to another man, most likely an innocent man, who does not agree with their own ideas. This person is usually persecuting another out of envy. In Voltaire's work, he relates persecution to religion and god. Superstition: A superstition is something that most people believe, that may or may not be true. Voltaire talks about this through witches and devils and the way that a devil can take over a person. Voltaire talked about superstition, when he wrote about Devils and witches. He wrote about how people believed that a devil could come up to a woman, give her a kiss and imprint on her, then he is able to force her to do something. This was seen as a superstition by Voltaire.

8 “It is forbidden to kill; therefore all murderers are punished unless they kill in large numbers and to the sound of trumpets," (Voltaire) This is a quote that Voltaire once said in his lifetime and it goes along with him writing about Persecution and War. It goes along with both of these topics that Voltaire covered because persecution talks about bad things that people will do to innocent men. When killing relates to war though, which Voltaire is referring to with the trumpets, it is not persecution. He is being somewhat sarcastic, to portray that this idea is absurd. This symbol represents tolerance which can also represent persecution and superstition. This represents tolerance because all of the colors are working together to make a picture. They aren’t blending together, but they aren’t working against each other which is what tolerance is. It represents persecution because if everyone was tolerant of each other there wouldn’t be persecution. “Tolerance has never brought civil war; intolerance has covered the world with carnage…” (Voltaire) This is a quote from Voltaire’s section about tolerance. This means that if everyone is tolerant of each other, whether it be religious or not, civil war would never break out, yet if intolerance happens, killings and wars will cover the world.

9 Baron De Montesquieu (1689-1755)
By Athalie and Marissa

10 In The Spirit of Laws, he has 3 main concepts:
No political system is perfect. “Republics end through luxury; monarchies through poverty” “Although the forms of state- monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy- were united in English government, the powers of government were separated from one another. There can be no liberty where the executive, legislative, and judicial powers are united in one person or body of persons, because such concentration is bound to result in arbitrary despotism.” Checks and balances should be on separate branches. “ In order to have this liberty, it is requisite the government be so constituted as one man need not be afraid of another.


12 The Age of Reason – Thomas Paine
Brief summary by: Jeremy Carrier

13 His many works In Paine’s Age of Reason, he denounced many of Christianities myths, miracles, and superstitions, while he called for a natural religion. He said that no one should carry the creed of a church, but let your mind be your church. And to the right, to believe what you wish, to and not what you are told to.

14 Quotes A long habit of not thinking a thing wrong gives it a superficial appearance of being right An army of principles can penetrate where an army of soldiers cannot. Belief in a cruel God makes a cruel man. Read more:

15 Pictures Thomas Paine lived

16 bibliography Sources of Western Tradition

17 Thomas Paine By Haley Kwak

18 Key Ideas Thomas Paine believed that the 10 commandments had no divinity. He also believed the virgin birth was based completely on hearsay and therefore he has no interest. Lastly Paine believed that Jesus was virtuous, but he believes that his miracles and the story of his divinity is based on hearsay.

19 "My own mind is my own church."
Quotes! "My own mind is my own church." "The story so far,as relates to the supernatural part, has every mark of fraud and imposition stamped upon the face of it."

20 “Enlightenment is man’s leaving his self-caused immaturity”
Immanuel Kant “Enlightenment is man’s leaving his self-caused immaturity”

21 His Ideas: Freedom is the key to enlightenment
Enlightenment will arrive slowly to the public Immaturity  lack of enlightenment

22 Significant Quotes “Which restriction is hampering enlightenment…? the public use of a man’s reason must be free at all times, and this alone can bring enlightenment among men…” “Do we live at present in an enlightened age? The answer is: no, but in an age of enlightenment.”

23 Infantile men counteract the progression of Enlightenment

24 Denis Diderot

25 Encyclopedia “…In truth, the aim of an encyclopedia is to collect all the knowledge…, to present it to the men with whom we live, and to transmit this to those who will come after us…” =

26 Men and Their Liberty are Not Objects of Commerce
Slavery is a violation of the individual’s natural rights (and everyone has natural rights) “No man has the right to buy [Negro men] or to make himself their master.”

27 Supplement to the Voyage of Bougainville
“…I don’t know what your great workman [God] is, but…I hope that he never speaks to our children, for if he does, he may tell them the same foolishness…”

28 On Crimes And Punishment 1764
By Caesare Beccaria

29 Ideas Beccaria believed that a person should be treated fairly until they are proven guilty. Beccaria frequently questioned the severity of certain punishments, including the death penalty. Beccaria said that torture was not a valid way of obtaining information, as the victim will say anything to escape the pain.

30 Quotes “The impression of pain may become so great that, filling the entire sensory capacity of the tortured person, it leaves him only free to choose what for the moment is the shortest way of escape from pain.” “Suicide is a crime which seems not to admit of punishment, properly speaking; for it cannot be inflicted but on the innocent, or upon an insensible dead body.” “A cruelty consecrated by the practice of most nations is torture of the accused during his trial, either to make him confess the crime or to clear up contradictory statements…”

31 Picture

32 John Howard Prisons in England and Wales
-His actions led parliament to reform prisons -Howard traveled England visiting prisons, and finding their darkest secrets. -He was astounded by the appalling conditions that we found in prisons across the nation. John Howard

33 PRISONS AND SYMBOL + (He cleaned up prisons) =

34 2 Quotes 1.) “….Many prisoners are scantily supplied, and ……totally unprovided with the necessities of life” 2.) “The evils mentioned hitherto affect the health and life of prisoners.”

35 The father of democracy and totalitarianism all rolled into one.
Jean Jacques Rousseau The father of democracy and totalitarianism all rolled into one. 35

36 Quotes “If children are not to be required to do anything as a matter of obedience… what other motive could they have for learning?” “The clauses of this contract… may be reduced to one- the total alienation of each associate, together with all his rights, to the whole community…”

37 Significant Ideas One of Rousseau’s main ideas is the idea that children, by receiving a worthwhile education, could help fix some of the problems that the world was facing. He also states that people should give up their rights to the community as, thereby going completely against the Lockean principle that citizens have their own rights. He adds that man may lose his right to everything he can get, but he gains such civil liberties as freedom of speech and press.

38 Jean-Jacques Rousseau

39 Desire to Learn Should not be forced to learn
Our own motives and desires take us far When someone directs another how to act and what to do they will become “stupid” Learn to be self reliant Take action Nature is man’s schoolmaster They will learn more quickly Carry out his own ideas “What would you have him think about, when you do all the thinking for him?”

40 Tranquility Government assures their subjects tranquility or calmness
But what’s the point of tranquility if it’s the very thing that causes misery? Ex: dungeons create a tranquil atmosphere Every man is born free and their liberty belongs to them and the no one, not even the government, has the right to take that away. Every person should have to right to accept or reject an arbitrary government in order to legitimize it. To give up all rights to the government would mean to “surrender the rights of humanity.“ To problem is to find a way to defend and protect a person and their goods, while issuing a sense of unity among people and being able to obey himself and remain free.

41 Government Government only has to do with the execution of the sovereign laws Democracy: A danger that the will of the government will be lost in the pressure of private interest. Aristocracy: Acceptable as long as they execute the will rather than the welfare of the ruling class Monarchy: Causes temptation to serve private welfare at the expense of the common good The appropriate form of government depends on the people. Important that there is a social tie that ties together all the different interests The general will is the collective need of all to provide for the common good of all

42 “One raindrop Raises an Ocean”
“The general will is to be able to express itself, that there should be no partial society within the State, and that each citizen should think only his own thoughts” “Men are born free, yet everywhere we are in chains” “One raindrop Raises an Ocean”

43 Mary Wollstonecraft Women’s Rights By Madison Carroll

44 Important Points Women have been lowered to a subservient position in society Men are not happy enough with just being physically stronger, they must keep women below their potential to feel superior Without a correct education, how is a woman supposed to stand out intellectually?

45 From: A Vindication of the Rights of Women
“I wish to persuade women to endeavor to acquire strength, both of mind and body…” “man of sense can only love [an uneducated] woman on account of her sex, and respect her because she is a trusty servant.” “How many women thus waste life away the prey of discontent, who might have practised as physicians, regulated a farm, managed a shop, and stood erect, supported by their own industry, instead of hanging their heads…”

46 Caesare Beccaria Italian Economist and Criminologist
“On Crimes and Punishments” 1764

47 Main Points Questioning the death penalty – Is it really necessary for the security and the good of the society? No man can be called guilty and punished without a fair trial first. Torture is not a way to determine guilt or innocence, it only determines pain tolerance.

48 Quotes “Of two men, equally innocent or equally guilty, the strong and courageous will be acquitted, the weak and the timid condemned, by virtue of the vigorous rational argument…thus the innocent cannot but lose, whereas the guilty may gain…” “No man can be called guilty before a judge has sentenced him, nor can society deprive him of public protection before it has been decided that he has in fact violated the conditions under which such protection was accorded him.”

49 Caesare Beccaria:


51 Denis Diderot John Wesley Marquis de Condorcet
“Away with whips, all chains, all compulsion. Be gentle towards all men. And see that you invariably do unto every one, as you would he should do unto you.” (93) “Reducing a man to slavery, buying him, selling him, keeping him in servitude: these are truly crimes worse than theft.” (90) “This Negro does not divest himself and can never divests himself of his natural right…” (89) 51

52 1. It is not necessary to sacrifice others (trade) in order to make money- It’s better to not have wealth then have wealth by villainy. 2. Slaves are not stupid- Their stupidity is caused by their inhumane masters who don’t give them opportunity to understand. 3. Since there is a God, and slave is morally unjust, God with judge you, showing no mercy

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