Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16: Population and Urbanization. Objectives (slide 1 of 2) 16.1 Sociological Study of Population: Demography Explain how demographers use the."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives (slide 1 of 2) 16.1 Sociological Study of Population: Demography Explain how demographers use the balancing equation to predict population change from births, deaths, and net migration. Discuss the use of population pyramids to examine population structures. 16.2 Theories and Perspectives on Population Growth Compare and contrast theories and perspectives of population growth. 16.3 Urbanization: The Growth of Cities Analyze the processes that shape the growth of cities. Illustrate theories of urban growth. Describe general trends in urbanization.
Objectives (slide 1 of 2) 16.4 Urbanism and City Life Discuss sociological theories of the role of community. 16.5 The Future: Population, Cities, and Environment Examine the role of new technology in population distribution. Discuss how social life is changing in rural areas. Analyze how population increases and increased consumption affect the environment.
Demography Demography: The scientific study of human populations Population: The people who inhabit a country or geographic region Census: A survey of the entire population of a country or region counting the number of people and their characteristics – Census undercount: The number of people missed in a census; includes illegal immigrants, the homeless, and vagrants, as well as people who, for some reason, did not want to be counted
Population Changes Balancing equation (sometimes called the basic demographic equation): A simple equation that expresses population growth as a function of four factors Population(t 2 ) = Population(t 1 ) + Births – Deaths + Net Migration Net migration: The number of people moving into the geographic area minus the number of people leaving the area Natural rate of increase: The rate of increase in a population due to births and deaths
Population Changes Doubling time: The number of years it would take for the population to double in size if it were to continue to grow at its current rate
Fertility Fecundity: The maximum possible number of children a woman can have during her lifetime Fertility rate: The average number of children born per woman over her lifetime Replacement-level fertility: The average number of births per woman required to replace the population Total birth rate: The average number of live births per year per thousand women in the population Crude birth rate: The average number of live births per year per thousand people in the population
The US Postwar Baby Boom Baby boom: A period of time in which the birth rate was elevated for several years
Global Birth Rates Birth rates vary dramatically from country to country.
Mortality Mortality: The incidence of death in a population Crude death rate: The number of deaths per year for every thousand people in a population Life expectancy: The average number of years people are expected to live
Migration (slide 1 of 2) Migration: The movement of people from one geographic area to another – Immigration: People moving into a geographic area – Emigration: People moving out of a geographic area – Net migration rate: The rate of increase in a population due to net migration
Migration (slide 2 of 2) Internal migration: Migration from one place to another within a larger geographic area
Population Structure Population pyramid: A graph displaying the age and sex distribution for a population Age cohort: A subpopulation of people all born within a narrow age range
Malthusian Perspective Malthus argued that population increases exponentially while food supply increases linearly, creating starvation and disorder.
Marxist Perspective Marx argued that there were sufficient resources to sustain the world population but that those resources were distributed inequitably.
Demographic Transition Theory (slide 1 of 2) Demographic transition: The shift that occurs when countries change from high birthrates and death rates to low birthrates and death rates
Demographic Transition Theory (slide 2 of 2) Zero population growth (ZPG): A state in which the population size is expected to change little or none over time
Current Analysis of Population Growth Countries in phase II are experiencing rapid population growth. Countries in phase III face stable or declining populations.
The Link Between Demography and Urbanization Urbanization: The large-scale movement of people from less populated areas to more populated areas
A Brief History of Cities Cities were not possible until the advent of food surpluses.
Models of Urban Growth Human ecology: The study of people and their environment Three well-known theories of urban growth are: – Concentric zone theory – Multiple nuclei theory – Sector theory
Ecological Succession (slide 1 of 3) Ecological succession: A new social group or type of land use first “invade” a territory and then becomes the dominant social group or dominant land use for that territory – Invasion: The intrusion of one group or activity into an area occupied by another – Succession: The replacement of activities or people by others Gated communities: Communities that build walls or other barriers around a neighborhood and erect gates on streets entering the neighborhood, restricting traffic to local residents
Ecological Succession (slide 2 of 3) Urban Decline Urban decline: Ecological succession in an urban environment that results in increased crime, flight of affluent residents, or an exodus of businesses Infrastructure: The roads, bridges, subways, storm water and sewer systems, communications lines, power lines, and other physical structures necessary for the continued operation of industrialized societies Urban Renewal Urban renewal: Includes efforts to improve the urban environment intended to reduce crime, attract more affluent residents, or improve the tax base by attracting new business or industry
Ecological Succession (slide 1 of 2) Gentrification Gentrification: The resettlement of a low- income inner-city neighborhood by affluent residents and businesses, often forcing out the low- income residents who once lived there Residential Segregation Residential segregation: The separation of categories of people into different geographic areas of residence
Decentralization: Suburbs, Exurbs, and Edge Cities Metropolitan statistical area: A densely populated area consisting of a county containing a core urban area (specifically, a city with a population of 50,000 or more) as well as adjacent counties having a high degree of social and economic integration Micropolitan statistical area: Centers of population with smaller population cores with populations of 10,000 or more but less than 50,000 Megalopolis: A densely populated area containing two or more metropolitan areas that have grown until they overlap one another
Central Cities and Suburbs Central Cities Central cities: The original cities in metropolitan areas, often surrounded by suburbs The Suburbs Suburb: Any territory in a metropolitan area not included in the central city
Exurbs and Edge Cities The Exurbs Exurbs: The area beyond the old suburbs, forming a second ring farther out from the central city Edge Cities Edge cities: Less compact than older cities, have no clear center, and tend to grow up near major transportation routes
Ferdinand Tönnies: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft Community: A collection of people who share a common geographic territory, most of the daily interactions of members take place within the territory, and members have a sense of belonging Gemeinschaft: Describes the relationships among people in small, close-knit rural communities where social cohesion is achieved by strong personal bonds uniting members based on primary relationships, shared life experiences, and a shared culture Gesellschaft: Describes the relationships found in large and impersonal communities where many members do not know one another personally and cohesion is based on a complex division of labor and secondary relationships, where individuals have little identification with the group and little commitment to shared values
Emile Durkheim: Mechanical and Organic Solidarity Mechanical solidarity: People are held together by shared moral sentiments and tradition Division of labor: The allocation of different roles to different social statuses Organic solidarity: People are mutually dependent on one another due to a complex division of labor, and most relationships are neither intimate nor personal
Georg Simmel: The Blasé Urbanite Urban overload: People are exposed to more stimuli than they can respond to each day Norm of noninvolvement: Expectation that people will not become involved in the affairs of others to help preserve their privacy; typical of urban settings Studied nonobservance: Polite behavior in which someone strives to appear not to notice someone else, often employed in an attempt to help the other person save face
Louis Wirth: Anonymity and Self-Interest Wirth argues that cities undermine kinship and a sense of neighborhood, which are the bases of social control. This results in: – Anonymity – Interacting out of self-interest – Indifference – Heterogeneity – Alienation/loneliness
Robert Park: Urban Villages Urban villages: Areas of a city that people know well and in which they live, play, shop, and work
Herbert Gans: Diversity of Urban Dwellers Cosmopolites: Well-educated, high-income people who choose to live in the city to take advantage of its convenience and cultural resources Singles: One of the types of urban dwellers; young, unmarried people who live in the city by choice for its convenience and to meet people, seek jobs, and enjoy entertainment Ethnic villagers: People living in tight-knit inner-city neighborhoods united by race and social class and resembling small towns The deprived: Include the very poor, emotionally disturbed, handicapped individuals living at the bottom of society The trapped: People who cannot afford to leave the city who may identify with their neighborhood but dislike the city and what is has become
Communities without Walls Technology is transforming our notion of community as a geographic location.
Rural Life Rural areas: Communities having fewer than 2,500 residents along with areas in open country outside of any city
Aging in Place Aging in place: Pattern typical of many rural areas where the young adults leave for jobs and educational opportunities in more urban areas, leaving a region with more older adults
Ecological Limits to Population and Urbanization (slide 1 of 2) Sustainable development: Constrained economic growth that recycles instead of depletes natural resources while protecting air, water, land, and biodiversity
Ecological Limits to Population and Urbanization (slide 2 of 2) 20% of the world’s people account for 86% of all total private consumption expenditures globally. Human Development Index (HDI): A simple composite measure including health, schooling, and income