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 Biology – the study of life › Living organisms have 5 basic functions:  Responsiveness  Organisms respond to change in their immediate environment.

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Presentation on theme: " Biology – the study of life › Living organisms have 5 basic functions:  Responsiveness  Organisms respond to change in their immediate environment."— Presentation transcript:



3  Biology – the study of life › Living organisms have 5 basic functions:  Responsiveness  Organisms respond to change in their immediate environment  Growth  Over their lifetime, organisms increase in size through cell growth  Reproduction  Movement  Metabolism  Organisms use chemical reactions to create energy for responsiveness, growth, reproduction, and movement

4  Anatomy › “a cutting open” › The study of internal and external structure and the physical relationships between body parts  Physiology › The study of how living organisms perform their vital functions

5  Anatomy can be broken down into gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy › Gross (macroscopic) anatomy  Considers features visible with the unaided eye  Surface anatomy-study of general form and superficial markings  Regional anatomy-considers all superficial and internal features in a specific region of the body  Systemic anatomy-considers the structure of major organ systems › Microscopic anatomy  Concerns structures that cannot be seen without magnification  Subdivided into specialties  Cytology-analyzes the internal structure of individual cells  Histology-examines tissues, groups of specialized cells, and cell products that work together to perform specific functions

6  Human physiology-Study of the function of the human body › Cell physiology-study of the functions of living cells  Both within cells and between cells › Special physiology-study of the physiology of specific organs › Systemic physiology-considers all aspects of the function of specific organ systems › Pathological physiology (pathology)-study of the effects of diseases on organ or system functions

7  To understand the human body you must understand its levels of organization › Chemical (molecular) level-a molecule’s specialized shape determines its function › Cellular level-molecules interact to form structures that have specific functions in a cell › Tissue level-tissue is composed of similar cells working together to perform a specific function › Organ level-organs consist of 2+ different tissues working together to perform specific functions › Organ system level-organs interact in organ systems › Organism level-all of the organ systems in the body work together to maintain life and health

8  Integumentary system  Skeletal system  Muscular system  Nervous system  Endocrine system  Cardiovascular system  Lymphoid system  Respiratory system  Digestive system  Urinary system  Reproductive system

9  Structures: Skin, hair, sweat and oil glands  Function: › Forms external body covering › Protects deeper tissues from injury › Involved in vitamin D synthesis › Prevents desiccation, heat loss, and pathogen entry › Site of pain and pressure receptors

10  Structure: 206 bones of the human body  Function: › Protects and supports body organs › Provides a framework that muscles can use to create movement › Mineral storage  Bone contains 99% of the body’s store of calcium

11  Structures: The 600+ muscles of the body  Function: › Locomotion › Manipulation of the environment › Maintaining posture › Thermogenesis (generation of heat)

12  Structures: Brain, Spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.  Function: › Fast-acting control system of the body › Monitoring of the internal and external environment and responding (when necessary) by initiating muscular or glandular activity › Information Assessment

13  Structures: Hormone Secreting Glands › Pituitary, Thyroid, Thymus, Pineal, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Small Intestine, Stomach, Testes, Ovaries, Kidneys, Heart  Functions: › Long-term control system of the body › Regulates growth, reproduction, and nutrient use among other things.

14  Structures: Heart, Blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries)  Functions: › The heart pumps blood thru the blood vessels. › Blood provides the transport medium for nutrients (glucose, amino acids, lipids), gases (O2, CO2), wastes (urea, creatinine), signaling molecules (hormones), and heat.

15  Structures: Lymphatic vessels, Lymph nodes, Spleen, Thymus, Red bone marrow  Functions: › Returning “leaked” fluid back to the bloodstream › Disposal of debris › Attacking and resisting foreign invaders (pathogens i.e., disease- causing organisms) › Absorption of fat from the digestive tract

16  Structures: Nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs  Functions: › Constantly supply the blood with O2, and remove CO2 › Regulate blood pH

17  Structures:Oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder  Functions: › Ingestion and subsequent breakdown of food into absorbable units that will enter the blood for distribution to the body’s cells

18  Structures: Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra  Functions: › Removal of nitrogenous wastes › Regulation of body’s levels of water, electrolytes, and acidity

19  Structures: › Male: Testes, scrotum, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, penis › Female: Ovary, uterine tube, uterus, cervix, vagina, mammary glands  Functions: › Making Babies

20  Homeo (unchanging) + stasis (standing)  Refers to the existence of a stable internal environment; living organisms must maintain homeostasis to survive  Homeostatic regulation-the adjustments in physiological systems that preserve homeostasis. Involves 3 parts: › A receptor-sensitive to a stimulus › A control center-receives and processes receptor information › An effector-responds to the commands of the control center and opposes/reinforces the receptor

21  Negative feedback opposes variations from the norm, whereas positive feedback exaggerates them  Negative feedback-regardless of whether the stimulus rises or falls at the receptor, a variation outside normal limits triggers an automatic response that corrects the situation  Positive feedback-the initial stimulus produces a response that reinforces that stimulus

22  Anytime you describe structures relative to one another, you must assume this standard position:  Body erect  Feet slightly apart  Palms facing forward  Thumbs point away from body

23 Anterior Position (Supine) Posterior Position (Prone) Cephalon or head (Cephalic)

24 Lateral Distal


26  Abdominal: abdominal region  Acromial: the point of the shoulder  Antebrachial: forearm  Antecubital: anterior surface of the elbow  Axillary: armpit  Brachial: upper arm  Buccal: cheek of the face  Calcaneal: heel of the foot  Carpal: wrist  Cephalic: head  Cervical: neck  Deltoid: round part of the shoulder  Digital: fingers and toes  Dorsum: back  Femoral: thigh  Frontal: forehead  Gluteal: buttocks  Hallux: big toe  Inguinal: groin  Lumbar: lower back  Mammary: breast

27  Mental: chin  Nasal: Nose  Occipital: base of the skull  Olecranal: elbow  Oral: mouth  Orbital: bony eye socket  Otic: ear  Palmar: palm of hand  Patellar: Kneecap  Pedal: Foot  Pelvic: pelvis region  Perineal: area between anus and external genitals  Plantar: sole of foot  Pollex: thumb  Popliteal: behind the knee  Pubic: genital region  Sacral: lower back between the hips  Scapular: shoulder blade  Tarsal: ankle  Thoracic: chest

28  Many vital internal organs are housed in chambers called body cavities that have essential functions: › Protect the organs from shock and cushioning them from jolting that occurs when walking, running, or jumping › Permit significant changes in the size and shape of internal organs  Dorsal body cavity- protects the nervous system › Contains the brain and spinal cord

29  Ventral body cavity (coelom)-appears early in development and gradually subdivides as the organs it contains grow › Diaphragm-divides ventral cavity into thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities  Thoracic-subdivided into the pericardial cavity (containing the heart) and 2 pleural cavities (containing the lungs)  Abdominopelvic-subdivided into the abdominal cavity (containing the liver, stomach, spleen, small intestine and most of the large intestine) and the pelvic cavity (small portion of the large intestine, urinary bladder, and various reproductive organs) › The internal organs within the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities are called viscera

30  Serous Membranes have two layers › Parietal serosa- lines internal body walls › Visceral serosa- covers the internal organs › Serous fluid separates the serosae

31  RUQ › Liver  LUQ › Spleen  RLQ › Appendix  LLQ › Sigmoid colon


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