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Anatomy and Physiology Honors

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1 Anatomy and Physiology Honors
Ms. Sunday

2 An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Chapter 1 An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

3 The Basics Biology – the study of life
Living organisms have 5 basic functions: Responsiveness Organisms respond to change in their immediate environment Growth Over their lifetime, organisms increase in size through cell growth Reproduction Movement Metabolism Organisms use chemical reactions to create energy for responsiveness, growth, reproduction, and movement

4 Anatomy is Structure; Physiology is Function
“a cutting open” The study of internal and external structure and the physical relationships between body parts Physiology The study of how living organisms perform their vital functions

5 Anatomy Anatomy can be broken down into gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy Gross (macroscopic) anatomy Considers features visible with the unaided eye Surface anatomy-study of general form and superficial markings Regional anatomy-considers all superficial and internal features in a specific region of the body Systemic anatomy-considers the structure of major organ systems Microscopic anatomy Concerns structures that cannot be seen without magnification Subdivided into specialties Cytology-analyzes the internal structure of individual cells Histology-examines tissues, groups of specialized cells, and cell products that work together to perform specific functions

6 Physiology Human physiology-Study of the function of the human body
Cell physiology-study of the functions of living cells Both within cells and between cells Special physiology-study of the physiology of specific organs Systemic physiology-considers all aspects of the function of specific organ systems Pathological physiology (pathology)-study of the effects of diseases on organ or system functions

7 Levels of Organization
To understand the human body you must understand its levels of organization Chemical (molecular) level-a molecule’s specialized shape determines its function Cellular level-molecules interact to form structures that have specific functions in a cell Tissue level-tissue is composed of similar cells working together to perform a specific function Organ level-organs consist of 2+ different tissues working together to perform specific functions Organ system level-organs interact in organ systems Organism level-all of the organ systems in the body work together to maintain life and health

8 11 Organ Systems Integumentary system Skeletal system Muscular system
Nervous system Endocrine system Cardiovascular system Lymphoid system Respiratory system Digestive system Urinary system Reproductive system

9 The Integumentary System
Structures: Skin, hair, sweat and oil glands Function: Forms external body covering Protects deeper tissues from injury Involved in vitamin D synthesis Prevents desiccation, heat loss, and pathogen entry Site of pain and pressure receptors

10 The Skeletal System Structure: 206 bones of the human body Function:
Protects and supports body organs Provides a framework that muscles can use to create movement Mineral storage Bone contains 99% of the body’s store of calcium

11 The Muscular System Structures: The 600+ muscles of the body Function:
Locomotion Manipulation of the environment Maintaining posture Thermogenesis (generation of heat)

12 The Nervous System Structures: Brain, Spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. Function: Fast-acting control system of the body Monitoring of the internal and external environment and responding (when necessary) by initiating muscular or glandular activity Information Assessment

13 The Endocrine System Structures: Hormone Secreting Glands Functions:
Pituitary, Thyroid, Thymus, Pineal, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Small Intestine, Stomach, Testes, Ovaries, Kidneys, Heart Functions: Long-term control system of the body Regulates growth, reproduction, and nutrient use among other things.

14 The Cardiovascular System
Structures: Heart, Blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries) Functions: The heart pumps blood thru the blood vessels. Blood provides the transport medium for nutrients (glucose, amino acids, lipids), gases (O2, CO2), wastes (urea, creatinine), signaling molecules (hormones), and heat.

15 The Lymphoid System Structures: Lymphatic vessels, Lymph nodes, Spleen, Thymus, Red bone marrow Functions: Returning “leaked” fluid back to the bloodstream Disposal of debris Attacking and resisting foreign invaders (pathogens i.e., disease-causing organisms) Absorption of fat from the digestive tract

16 The Respiratory System
Structures: Nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs Functions: Constantly supply the blood with O2, and remove CO2 Regulate blood pH

17 The Digestive System Structures:Oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder Functions: Ingestion and subsequent breakdown of food into absorbable units that will enter the blood for distribution to the body’s cells

18 The Urinary System Structures: Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra Functions: Removal of nitrogenous wastes Regulation of body’s levels of water, electrolytes, and acidity

19 The Reproductive System
Structures: Male: Testes, scrotum, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, penis Female: Ovary, uterine tube, uterus, cervix, vagina, mammary glands Functions: Making Babies

20 Homeostasis Homeo (unchanging) + stasis (standing)
Refers to the existence of a stable internal environment; living organisms must maintain homeostasis to survive Homeostatic regulation-the adjustments in physiological systems that preserve homeostasis. Involves 3 parts: A receptor-sensitive to a stimulus A control center-receives and processes receptor information An effector-responds to the commands of the control center and opposes/reinforces the receptor

21 Negative and Positive Feedback
Negative feedback opposes variations from the norm, whereas positive feedback exaggerates them Negative feedback-regardless of whether the stimulus rises or falls at the receptor, a variation outside normal limits triggers an automatic response that corrects the situation Positive feedback-the initial stimulus produces a response that reinforces that stimulus

22 Anatomical Position Anytime you describe structures relative to one another, you must assume this standard position: Body erect Feet slightly apart Palms facing forward Thumbs point away from body

23 Surface Anatomy Anterior Position (Supine) Posterior Position (Prone)
Cephalon or head (Cephalic) Anterior Position (Supine) Posterior Position (Prone)

24 Directional Terms Lateral Distal

25 Planes of Section

26 Anatomical Locations Abdominal: abdominal region
Acromial: the point of the shoulder Antebrachial: forearm Antecubital: anterior surface of the elbow Axillary: armpit Brachial: upper arm Buccal: cheek of the face Calcaneal: heel of the foot Carpal: wrist Cephalic: head Cervical: neck Deltoid: round part of the shoulder Digital: fingers and toes Dorsum: back Femoral: thigh Frontal: forehead Gluteal: buttocks Hallux: big toe Inguinal: groin Lumbar: lower back Mammary: breast

27 Anatomical Locations (cont.)
Mental: chin Nasal: Nose Occipital: base of the skull Olecranal: elbow Oral: mouth Orbital: bony eye socket Otic: ear Palmar: palm of hand Patellar: Kneecap Pedal: Foot Pelvic: pelvis region Perineal: area between anus and external genitals Plantar: sole of foot Pollex: thumb Popliteal: behind the knee Pubic: genital region Sacral: lower back between the hips Scapular: shoulder blade Tarsal: ankle Thoracic: chest

28 Body Cavities Many vital internal organs are housed in chambers called body cavities that have essential functions: Protect the organs from shock and cushioning them from jolting that occurs when walking, running, or jumping Permit significant changes in the size and shape of internal organs Dorsal body cavity-protects the nervous system Contains the brain and spinal cord

29 Body Cavities (cont.) Ventral body cavity (coelom)-appears early in development and gradually subdivides as the organs it contains grow Diaphragm-divides ventral cavity into thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities Thoracic-subdivided into the pericardial cavity (containing the heart) and 2 pleural cavities (containing the lungs) Abdominopelvic-subdivided into the abdominal cavity (containing the liver, stomach, spleen, small intestine and most of the large intestine) and the pelvic cavity (small portion of the large intestine, urinary bladder, and various reproductive organs) The internal organs within the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities are called viscera

30 Serous Membranes Serous Membranes have two layers
Parietal serosa-lines internal body walls Visceral serosa-covers the internal organs Serous fluid separates the serosae

31 Quadrants RUQ Liver LUQ Spleen RLQ Appendix LLQ Sigmoid colon

32 Abdominopelvic Regions


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