Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology"— Presentation transcript:
0In 2007, Kati Mori took part in the London Marathon – her fourth, and the hottest on record, with temperatures peaking at 75 F. Conscious of the repeated advice to maintain fluid intake, she took frequent drinks at the water stations along the route.By the 18th mile, Kati felt bad but was determined to finish, Near the end, she needed help from other runners to stay upright; hours later she was in the hospital, suffering from severe diarrhea, headache, vomiting and increasing confusion, with her legs endlessly mimicking a running motion. “I thought I was still in the marathon,” she says.Science Practice 8: Constructing Explanations; HS-LS1-3 Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.
2DefinitionsAnatomy – the structure of body parts (also called Morphology)Physiology – the function of the body parts, what they do and how they do it
3Characteristics of Living Things 1. Movement - self initiated change in position, motion of internal parts2. Responsiveness (irritability) - Ability to sense changes within, or around the organism and react to them3. Growth - increase in body size4. Reproduction - Parents produce offspring / producing new individuals5. Respiration - Obtaining oxygen (O2), using it to release energy from food substances, and getting rid of wastes
46. Digestion - Chemically changing (breaking down) food substances, and getting rid of wastes 7. Absorption - Passage of Digested products (food substances) through membranes and into body fluids8. Circulation - Movement of substances throughout the body9. Assimilation - Changing absorbed substances into chemically different substances10. Excretion - Removal of wastes
5I am walking to Mcdonalds (movement) I stop at the traffic light (response)My body is growing (growth)I am breathing air (respiration)I get a hamburger and eat it (digestion)My body absorbs the hamburger (absorption)The hamburger circulates in my body (circulation)The hamburger is changed to things my body needs (assimilation)Eventually, I go to the bathroom (excretion)Someday I may reproduce (reproduction)
6Other Characteristics Metabolism = all the physical and chemical changesBodily needs = food, oxygen, water, heat (How long can you live without these?)Homeostasis = tendency of the body to maintain a stable, balanced, internal environment. “Sameness”
8Axial Portion - head, neck, trunk Appendicular Portion - arms & legs 1. Several body cavities 2. Layers of membranes within cavities 3. Variety of organs and organ systems within cavities (VISCERA = internal organs. "Visceral organs")
11Body Cavities Dorsal = back side Ventral = front side Thoracic = chest (heart, trachea, lungs..)Abdomen = stomach area (spleen, intestines)Pelvic = lower abdomen (bladder, reproductive organs)DIAPHRAGM: Separates the thoracic and pelvic region
12Label the body cavities (use your book) It's easier to visualize the body cavities on pictures - see Body Cavity Label | Label 2Label the body cavities (use your book)
15When Kati arrived at the hospital and doctors began to collect information, they discovered that she weighed 128 lbs. Oddly, when she checked in to the race, she weighed 126 lbs.The doctor suggests that Kati might have “hyponatremia.”What do you think that is?
16MEMBRANESSerous Membrane - two layers, covers organsOuter layer = parietalInner layer = visceral (lines the organs)Serous fluid – lubricating fluid
18Visceral Pleura Parietal Pleura Visceral and Parietal always mean the same thing.Visceral points toward the guts Parietal points toward the outsideVisceral Pleura Parietal PleuraVisceral Pericardium Parietal PericardiumVisceral PeritoneumParietal PeritoneumLUNGSHEARTINTESTINES
19Anatomical Terminology Anatomical Position = standing erect, face forward, arms at side, palms facing forward*Study and learn the following terms*1. Superior2. Inferior3. Anterior4. Posterior5. Medial6. Lateral7. Proximal8. Distal 9. Superficial 10. Deep
21Homework: Fill out the chart on the body regions
22How does Kati’s story relate to HOMEOSTASIS? In cases of water intoxication, it is extreme hyponatremia that can ultimately cause coma and death. If it's caught early, treatment with IV fluids containing electrolytes can lead to a complete recovery; but untreated, hyponatremia is fatal.The doctor orders a drug that increases urination. Kati is able to clear the extra water from her body and recovers.How does Kati’s story relate to HOMEOSTASIS?
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