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 2-2.5 million years  Different features:  Dependent on mothers for long time, upright position (backaches), omnivores…

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Presentation on theme: " 2-2.5 million years  Different features:  Dependent on mothers for long time, upright position (backaches), omnivores…"— Presentation transcript:

1  2-2.5 million years  Different features:  Dependent on mothers for long time, upright position (backaches), omnivores…

2  14,000 years and learned only one simple tool  More erect stature and brain development  Homo erectus- spread in Africa  Population= 1.5 million 100,000 years ago

3  Homo sapiens sapien- newest human breed  Small hunting groups but need wide range of space to roam  Improved tools  Development of speech  Rituals developed to lessen fear of death  Spread over earth (originated in Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda)  Key discoveries: fire and use of animal skin

4  Improvements of stone tools (sharpen and shape stone)  Animal bones used for needles  Log rafts, dugouts for fishing, manufactured pots and baskets  Domesticated animals (cows) improved food supply  Population growth accelerate= increase in wars- broken bones  Few villages especially if good fishing (lakes in Switzerland)

5  Invention of agriculture  Creation of cities  Foreshadow of civilization

6  Agriculture= moved humans towards more elaborate social and cultural patterns  Settle in one spot  Focus on economic, political and religious goals  Increased population 6 mil to 8 mil  Need for more reliable source of food  Hunt smaller game; however, in general declined  Dependent on wild grains, berries, nuts  New animals domesticated

7  Middle East- 9000 B.C.E (B.C)- pigs, sheep, goats and cattle  Fertile  not heavily forested and animals short supply (challenge to hunters)  Knowledge of ag spread to India, N Africa and Europe  Rice led to SE Asia developing ag independent from ME

8  Development of agriculture= Neolithic Revolution- misleading?? Evolved over time, not a sudden transformation

9  Copper- 1 st metal people manipulated  Bronze Age- 4000-1500 B.C.E bronze tools introduced, refers to basic age of human existence  Metal-useful for ag and herding societies  Metal hoes and weapons  specializing in a certain craft (conservative)  Basis for discovery

10  Encourage formation of larger, stable communities  Hunters lived in small groups (40-60 ppl)  Dormant ag groups: Slash and burn agriculture- burn trees and farm until soil depleted  Herding groups- nomadic tribal bands Central Asia, ME, Sudan

11  Dominant ag regions  Advantages (houses last, wells, etc.)  Stability= irrigation to channel water to fields  Reason for communities and not a series of isolated farms (could not regulate rivers flow or build and maintain irrigation ditches

12  Southern Turkey  7000 B.C.E  Mud bricks & timber housing  move across roof top  joined together  P. 17

13 Non-Greeks Nomads- looked down on any society lacking in civilization

14  What is you definition?  Enough economic surpluses to form division of labor and social hierarchy involving inequalities?  Emergence of formal political organizations opposed to dependence on family or tribal ties?  Societies rely on sedentary agriculture, existence of nonfarming elites as well as merchant and manufacturing groups?

15  3500 B.C.E  Mesopotamia (bt the rivers)- Tigris and Euphrates rivers- part of ME, made from no other influence (scratch)  Sumerians invade 3500 bce  Four initial centers  Middle East  Egypt  NW India  N China  Achievements  Writing, formal codes of law, city planning, architecture, trade, monetary system

16  Mesopotamia  Sumerian  Phoecians  Hebrews

17  Cuneiform  Statues and painted frescoes for temples  Science=complex agricultural society  Astronomy  Number system- units of 10, 60, 360  Religious rituals  Patron god – shrines in each city  Ziggurats- operated by priests, conduct rituals

18 Ziggurats

19  Form of writing using wedge-shaped style and clay tablets by Sumerians  Pictures to represent various objects, moved to geometric shapes to symbolize spoken words  Elaborate political structures, can send messages and keep records  Record data and build on past (written wisdom)  World that can be understood

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21  Powerful gods influence over nature  Prayers and offerings to prevent floods and good health  Divine force in natural objects (trees, rivers, mountains)  Influenced writers of the Old Testament- ▪ Creation of earth from water ▪ Punishment through flood ▪ Initial concept of hell

22  City-states  King, divine authority  Blending of civilization and politics  Government-regulate religion  Court system  Kings- military leaders  Trained army  King, nobles, priests- controlled land, managed by slaves  Beginnings of slavery  Warfare- ensure supplies of slaves

23  Wheeled carts  Fertilizers  Silver- means of exchange (early form of monetary system)

24  Hard to defend region  Temptation for outside attacks  Akkadians  Continued much of Sumerian culture

25  Expanded civilization across Middle East  King Hammurabi  Hammurabi Code  Code of law and ethics  Established procedures for courts,  regulated property rights and duties of family members  harsh punishments for crime

26  Indo-European (North)  Semitic (South)  Increased population and influenced language  Decline of large political units  Smaller city-states/regional kingdoms  Assyrians and Persians create large empires in Middle East

27  North Africa (Nile River)  3000 B.C.E.  Trade and technology from Mesopotamia  Different society and culture  Pharaoh- king of Egypt  Economy- 100% government directed vs Mesopotamia- independent business class  Pyramids  Culture influenced Sudan region  Neither science nor alphabet as elaborate as Mesopotamia—More advanced in math  Idea of 24 hour day

28  Along Indus River  Cities- Harappa and Mohenjo Daro  houses= running water  Indus River inhabitants  Own alphabet and artistic form ▪ Harappan alphabet not deciphered  Trade with Mesopotamia  Hard to determine influence and on India due to Indo-European invasion and natural disasters

29  Protective city walls- effective central government  Citadels- strong ruling class

30  Major trading center  Jade from China and precious jewels from Burma  Stone seals- realistic images of humans and animals  Merchants used seals to ensure that crates and urns were not opened during trade transport  Can not interpret writing system  Primitive weapons- prone for attack

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32  Yellow River  1 st isolated-later developed trade with India and ME  Part fact part fiction records  1. An organized state existed- irrigation  2. 2000 bce advanced technology and intellectual way of life  Ride horse, skilled in pottery  Bronze  1000 bce iron

33  Ideographic  End of Shang period- 3000 characters  Paper  Inks  Writing- key to Chinese identity  Provided bond so regions were able to communicate

34  1500- one of the 1 st major tribes in n China  Similar to Aryans (conquered n India)  War like, nomads  Fought on horseback and chariots, used deadly bronze weapons  Shang Monarch- intermediary bt Shangdi and other motals-  Rituals, oracles, and sacrifices  Good crops and large families  Offerings: incense, wine, animals and water festiviles  Oracles- sacred- prophesies over war, long journeys, marriage alliances  Conquered by Zhou Dynasty 1000 bc

35  Invention of the wheel  Taming of the horse  Creation of alphabet and writing utensils  Math concepts (square roots)  Development of sophisticated governments (monarchy or bureaucracies)

36  Eastern Mediterranean  Established colonies throughout Mediterranean (north Africa, coasts of Europe)  Alphabet- 22 letters  Predecessor of Greek and Latin  Improved Egyptian numbering system

37  Monotheistic religion  Single God, Hebrew Bible  Special connection between God and Jewish people  Linked to ethical conduct  God- less humanlike, more abstract  Religion- way of life, not rituals  Influenced by Babylonian civilization


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