10Essential Knowledge – 6.1.1define hunter-gatherer communities and detail the characteristics that defined themdescribe how hunter-gatherers adapted to their natural environment (example – the use of simple tools to construct shelter, hunt, and make clothes)describe how hunter-gatherers developed technological advances (example – stone tools, the use of art to express ideas)describe how hunter-gatherers utilized discoveries during the Stone Age (example – fire)recognize the cultural & social distinctiveness of hunter-gatherer societies (examples – the use of rudimentary language to communicate, roles of men and women)describe the impact of climate changes during the period and realize the value of migration as an enabling factor in societal development (example – the use of a land bridge to migrate into North America)
11Define hunter-gatherer communities and detail the characteristics that defined them. hunter gatherers is the term used by anthropologists to describe a specific kind of lifestyle, that of all human beings until the invention of agriculture about 8000 years agohunter-gatherers hunt game and collect plant foods (called foraging) rather than grow or tend cropshunter-gatherers tend to have non-hierarchical social structureshunter-gatherers are nomadic
12hunter gatherers live a subsistence lifestyle they have little development of skills or specialized laborthey have low-population densities – usually in small tribesthe male puberty rite of passage often receives greater emphasis in hunter-gatherer societies than the other three ritual occasions celebrated in all human societies (birth ,marriage, and death).hunter gatherers are sedentary when food is abundant
35Describe how hunter-gatherers adapted to their natural environment (example – the use of simple tools to construct shelter, hunt, and make clothes)Prehistoric hunter-gatherers, such as roving bands of Cro-Magnons, increased their food supply by inventing tools.Hunters crafted special spears that enabled them to kill game at greater distances.Digging sticks helped food gatherers pry plants loose at the roots.
36Toward the end of the Ice Age, early Americans were producing hunting technologies that enabled them to kill mammoths and other large Ice Age mammals. Hunting tools were made of bone, ivory, stone and antler, and used the wood, hide, and fiber of a variety of plants and animals. One of the most commonly used hunting tools was the spear point.
37How did early man adapt to his environment? Crouched low to catch animalsinvented toolsspecial spearsHow did early man adapt to his environment?Herded buffaloover cliffsSpear pointDigging sticksHunting tools were made of bone,ivory, stone and antler, and used thewood, hide, and fiber of a variety of plantsand animals.
48Describe how hunter-gatherers developed technological advances (example – stone tools, the use of art to express ideas)Early modern humans used stone, bone, and wood to fashion more than 100 different tools.Tool kits included knives to kill and butcher game, and fish hooks and harpoons to catch fish.A chisel-like cutter was designed to make other tools. Cro-Magnons used bone needles to sew clothing made of animal hides.
49Necklaces of seashells, lion teeth, and bear claws adorned both men and women. People ground mammoth tusks into polished beads.They also carved small realistic sculptures of animals that inhabited their world.Stone Age peoples on all continents created cave paintings. The best-known of these are the paintings on the walls and ceilings of European caves, mainly in France and Spain.Early artists drew lifelike images of wild animals
50In the famous cave of Les Trois-Frères, in Ariège, France, there is a rock painting, dated between 15,000 and 13,000 years ago, of a part-human, part-bison figure, variously described by scholars as a sorcerer, a magician, or a shaman, who appears to be performing music among wild animals.
66Recognize the cultural & social distinctiveness of hunter-gatherer societies (examples – the use of rudimentary language to communicate, roles of men and women)Culturecommon ways of dressing, similar hunting practices, favorite animals to eat.Culture is the way of life of a group of people.Culture includes common practices of a society, its shared understandings, and its social organization.By overcoming individual differences, culture helps to unify the group.
67CULTURE Shared Understandings • language • symbols • religious beliefs • values• the arts• political beliefsCommon Practices • what people eat • clothing and adornment • sports • tools and technology • social customs • workSocial Organization• family• class and caste structure• relationships betweenindividual and community• government• economic system• view of authorityCULTURE
69Recognize the cultural & social distinctiveness of hunter-gatherer societies (examples – the use of rudimentary language to communicate, roles of men and women)Homo erectus may have developed the beginnings of spoken language.Language, like technology, probably gave Homo erectus greater control over the environment and boosted chances for survival.The teamwork needed to plan hunts and cooperate in other tasks probably relied on language.They lived in bands of 25 to 70 people.The men almost certainly did the hunting. The women gathered fruits, berries, roots, and grasses.
71Prior to spoken languages, members of a group communicated with one another by grunting or through simple noises, and hand gestures.Spoken language allowed group members to exchange complex thoughts and ideas, and pass on their culture from one generation to the next.Groups could discuss plans, teach techniques, explain how to track animals, or where to go to find water, as well as form religion and folklore.
84grunting, noises & hand gestures (not THAT hand gesture!)
85What did spoken language allow hunter-gatherers to do?
86work in groups, plan, exchange ideas, develop religious values
87According to anthropologists, Homo erectus was the first to use fire. Describe how hunter-gatherers utilized discoveries during the Stone Age (example – fire)According to anthropologists, Homo erectus was the first to use fire.Fire provided warmth in cold climates, cooked food, and frightened away attacking animals.The control of fire also probably helped Homo erectus settle new lands.
88Describe the impact of climate changes during the period and realize the value of migration as an enabling factor in societal development (example – the use of a land bridge to migrate into North America)Scientists have two ideas about how could have people traveled beyond the ice sheets that covered Canada and blocked access to the United States.
89One idea proposes that an ice free corridor opened in Canada as the glaciers melted. According to this theory, small trees began to appear in the ice-free corridor and, for the first time, wood became available for the warmth and cooking fires people needed to survive the journey. The second idea suggests that people migrated down the coastline. Although the coastline was not completely ice-free, people may have used boats, and driftwood might have supplied the fires needed for survival.
90The Bering Land Bridge existed as a vast tundra plain connecting Asia and North America. As the world's glaciers and ice sheets melted over the following millenia, rising sea level flooded the land bridge — blocking migration routes for animals and humans.
99Assessment – 6.1.1differentiate between the geographic, social, and cultural attributes of hunter-gatherer societiesdistinguish between those characteristics of pre-civilization and civilizationsevaluate the development of hunter-gatherer community attributes in connection with the natural environmentutilize maps to explain and/or analyze migratory patterns of hunter-gatherers
100Hunter-gatherer is an anthropological term used to describe human beings who obtain their food from the bounty of nature, hunting animals and gathering wild plants.It is a subsistence lifestyle, practiced by all early human societies.Such people are generally nomads, moving on as food supplies dwindle, but sedentary when in one place.There is little development of skills or specialized labor beyond that required for hunting and gathering food.Such societies generally remain small, consisting of several, often related, family units.
101what it’s notwhat it issedentarySo what?context
102Create a hunter-gatherer bio-poem! Yourassessment!Create a hunter-gatherer bio-poem!__________________________ (name)___________, ____________, _________, ___________ (adjectives)lover of ___________, ___________ & ___________who feels ___________, ____________ & _______________who needs _______________________________who gives _________________________who fears ______________, _____________ & ___________who would like to see ________________, _____________________ & __________________resident of ________________________
105The Neolithic Revolution is the transition from a hunter-gatherer mode of subsistence to one based more upon the cultivation of crops, which first began in several centers dating from approximately 12,000-10,000 years ago.
106This transition also saw a change from a largely nomadic lifestyle to a more settled, agrarian-based one, with the onset of the domestication of plants and (later) animals.
107what it’s notwhat it isNeolithic revolutionSo what?context
1086.1.2 Explain the emergence of agriculture and its effect on early human communities, including the impact of irrigation techniques and the domestication of plants and animals.
109Essential Knowledge – 6.1.2understand why agriculture developed and the effect this occurrence had on human societyexplain how plant/animal domestication fostered agricultural development and the subsequent advent of semi-permanent human settlements – i.e. describe the role agriculture played in leading to humans to move from a nomadic lifestyle to the development of villagesunderstand the role of irrigation in this process and describe early irrigation techniques (examples – dams and canalsunderstand how the domestication of plants and animals eventually led to food surpluses
110Anthropologists argue that it was women who led the Neolithic Revolution and became history's first pioneers of agriculture
111Instead of hunting and gathering food from the environments where they lived, humans learned to simply grow their own food.Grains such as wheat, barley, rice, and corn were grown in different parts of the world.Wild animals were also domesticated. Goats were utilized for their meat and milk, cattle, pigs, and chickens provided a steady source of food for the support of a group of humans.
112With the advent of farming and domesticated animals to feed a society, life became much easier for early humans. As a result, many more humans survived the difficulties of life. The population quickly rose from around 2 million humans on the Earth, to more than 90 million.Farming allowed people to build villages along rivers, or wherever the ground was fertile enough for crops to grow. Archeologists have found some villages that are believed to have been built more than 8,000 years ago. Some of these ancient villages, such as Jericho, still survive to this day.
113Understand why agriculture developed and the effect this occurrence had on human society The shift from food-gathering to food-producing culture represents one of the great breakthroughs in history.Change in climate was probably a key reason for the agricultural revolution.Rising temperatures worldwide provided longer growing seasons and drier land for cultivating wild grasses.A rich supply of grain helped support a small population boom. As populations slowly rose, hunter-gatherers felt pressure to find new food sources. Farming provided a steady source of food.
114Explain how plant/animal domestication fostered agricultural development and the subsequent advent of semi-permanent human settlements – i.e. describe the role agriculture played in leading to humans to move from a nomadic lifestyle to the development of villagesSome groups practiced slash-and-burn farming, in which they cut trees or grasses and burned them to clear a field. The ashes that remained fertilized the soil. Farmers planted crops for a year or two, then moved to another area of land. After several years, trees and grass grew back, and other farmers repeated the process of slashing and burning.
115Hunters’ expert knowledge of wild animals likely played a key role in the domestication, or taming, of animals.They tamed horses, dogs, goats, and pigs. Like farming, domestication of animals came slowly. Stone Age hunters may have driven herds of animals into rocky ravines to be slaughtered. It was then a small step to drive herds into human-made enclosures. From there, farmers could keep the animals as a constant source of food and gradually tame them.Not only farmers domesticated animals. Pastoral nomads, or wandering herders, tended sheep, goats, camels, or other animals. These herders moved their animals to new pastures and watering places.
116Domesticated animals became more common Domesticated animals became more common. The invention of new tools—hoes, sickles, and plow sticks—made the task of farming easier.As the population of some early farming villages increased, social relationships became more complicated. The change from a nomadic hunting-gathering way of life to settled village life took a long time. Likewise, the change from village life to city life was a gradual process that spanned several generations.
130Understand the role of irrigation in this process and describe early irrigation techniques (examples – dams and canals)To cultivate more land and to produce extra crops, ancient people in larger villages built elaborate irrigation systems.The resulting food surpluses freed some villagers to pursue other jobs and to develop skills besides farming.Individuals who learned to become craftspeople created valuable new products, such as pottery, metal objects, and woven cloth. In turn, people who became traders profited from a broader range of goods to exchange—craftwork, grains, and many raw materials.Two important inventions—the wheel and the sail—also enabled traders to move more goods over longer distances.
131Understand how the domestication of plants and animals eventually led to food surpluses As people gradually developed the technology to control their natural environment, they reaped larger harvests. Settlements with a plentiful supply of food could support larger populations.
132Assessment – 6.1.2explain the development of agriculture by summarizing how irrigation techniques changed the structure of early human communitiesinterpret the effects of domestication of plants and animals on agriculture and/or communitieshypothesize on the impact of domestication and/or surplus on human activity.
1416.1.3 Use maps, globes, and models in explaining the role of the natural environment in shaping early civilizations, including the role of the river systems of the Nile (Egyptian), Tigris-Euphrates (Sumerian, Babylonian, Phoenician), Huang He (Chinese), and Indus (Harappan); the relationship of landforms, climate, and natural resources to trade and other economic activities and trade; and the ways that different human communities adapted to the environment.
142Farming Develops in Many Places Within a few thousand years, people in many other regions, especially in fertile river valleys, turned to farming.In Africa the Nile River Valley developed into an important agricultural center for growing wheat, barley, and other crops.In China About 8,000 years ago, farmers along the middle stretches of the Huang He (Yellow River) cultivated a grain called millet.In Mexico and Central America farmers cultivated corn, beans, and squash.In Peru farmers in the Central Andes were the first to grow tomatoes, sweet potatoes, and white potatoes.
143Tigris-Euphrates (Sumerian, Babylonian, Phoenician) Huang He (Chinese) Four River SystemsNile (Egyptian)Tigris-Euphrates (Sumerian, Babylonian, Phoenician)Huang He (Chinese)Indus (Harappan)
157Tigris – EuphratesA desert climate dominates the landscape between the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea in Southwest Asia. Yet within this dry region lies an arc of land that provided some of the best farming in Southwest AsiaThe region’s curved shape and the richness of its land led scholars to call it the Fertile Crescent. It includes the lands facing the Mediterranean Sea and a plain that became known as Mesopotamia.The word in Greek means “land between the rivers.”
158Tigris & EuphratesThe rivers framing Mesopotamia are the Tigris and Euphrates.They flow southeastward to the Persian Gulf. (See the map on page 30.)The Tigris and Euphrates rivers flooded Mesopotamia at least once a year. As the floodwater receded, it left a thick bed of mud called silt. Farmers planted grain in this rich, new soil and irrigated the fields with river water.The results were large quantities of wheat and barley at harvest time. The surpluses from their harvests allowed villages to grow.
1755 characteristics of civilizations advanced cities,specialized workerscomplex institutionsrecord keepingadvanced technologySumerians were one of first groups to form a civilization.
176SumeriansThey built cities that formed separate gov’ts – city states were like independent nationsSumer’s earliest governments were controlled by the temple priests. The farmers believed that the success of their crops depended upon the blessings of the gods, and the priests acted as go-betweens with the gods.A ziggurat was like a city hall & place of worship. From the ziggurat the priests managed the irrigation system. Priests demanded a portion of every farmer’s crop as taxes.
177Environmental Challenges & Solutions unpredictable flooding combined with a period of little or no rain --- irrigation ditchesno natural barriers for protection --- mud brick city wallslimited natural resources – Sumerians traded grain, cloth & tools for raw materials like stone, wood & metal
178SumeriansIn time of war a leader was chosen - some military leaders became rulers who then passed down their power to their sonsBy 2500 B.C., new cities were arising all over the Fertile Crescent, in what is now Syria, northern Iraq, and Turkey.Sumerians exchanged products and ideas, such as living in cities, with neighboring cultures. This process in which a new idea or a product spreads from one culture to another is called cultural diffusion.
179Sumerians They were polytheists Believed gods were human-like but that humans were gods’ servants & needed to keep the gods happySocial classes:Kings, landholders, and some priests made up the highest level in Sumerian society.Wealthy merchants ranked next.The vast majority of ordinary Sumerian people worked with their hands in fields and workshops.At the lowest level of Sumerian society were the slaves. Some slaves were foreigners who had been captured in war. Others were Sumerians who had been sold into slavery as children to pay the debts of their poor parents. Debt slaves could hope to eventually buy their freedom.Social class affected the lives of both men and women.
180Sumerian womenSumerian women could work as merchants, farmers, or artisans.They could hold property in their own names. Women could also join the priesthood.Some upper-class women did learn to read and writeSumerian women had more rights than women in many later civilizations.
181Sumerian science & technology Invented the wheel, the sail, and the plow and that they were among the first to use bronzeArithmetic and geometryIn order to erect city walls and buildings, plan irrigation systems, and survey flooded fields, Sumerians needed arithmetic and geometry. They developed a number system in base 60, from which stem the modern units for measuring time (60 seconds = 1 minute) and the360 degrees of a circle.Architectural innovationsArches, columns, ramps, and the pyramid shaped the design of the ziggurat and permanently influenced Mesopotamian civilization.CuneiformSumerians created a system of writing. One of the first known maps was made on a clay tablet in about 2300 B.C. Other tablets contain some of the oldest written records of scientific investigations in the areas of astronomy, chemistry, and medicine.
191Assessment – 6.1.3utilize maps to locate the river civilizations, interpret maps that identify the major river civilizationsinfer the relationship between rivers and other landformsdetail trade patternsascertain the resources that would be available to a civilizationhypothesize about the continued development of these civilizations based on the interaction of key components including, but not limited to, location, availability of resources, and potential for tradesummarize the development of individual river valley civilizations or to compare civilizations – either as a whole or with specific components (examples – compare the Harappan civilization to the Sumerian [whole] or compare the natural resources among all these civilizations [specific components])
192Essential Knowledge – 6.1.3explain the role that the natural environment had in shaping the location and development of early civilizationsrecognize all of these early civilizations developed along major riversunderstand that these river valleys were ideal locations for civilizations to arise since they provided important resources (such was water, food, and fertile soil), natural trade/transportation routes, and, in some cases a natural defense against attackslocate these early civilizations on maps and to associate the development of each civilization with a major riverunderstand that these rivers could be dangerous in times of flooding and that civilizations had to take measures to control flooding and/or lessen the severity of the impact & in spite of these attempts to control flooding, early civilizations often suffered devastating losses associated with this phenomenon
193Essential Knowledge – 6.1.3describe the common characteristics of river valley civilizations but also be familiar with some of the distinct characteristics of each river valley and its associated civilizationdescribe major physical features in addition to rivers that impacted civilizations – especially the nearby location of deserts which helped isolate and protect these civilizations as they developedunderstand the type of products developed in each civilization and the trade which resulted from the production of these goods
195What are the differences between hunting and gathering and agriculture as modes of life? What is pastoralism? Consider the interactions of sedentary agriculturists with pastoral nomads. What are the possibilities for interaction? How would each group tend to view itself in contrast to the other?
1996.1.4 Compare the cultural, social, and political features and contributions of civilizations in the Tigris and Euphrates, Nile, Indus, and Huang He river valleys, including the evolution of language and writing systems, architecture, religious traditions and forms of social order, the division or specialization of labor, and the development of different forms of government.
2006.1.5 Explain the role of economics in the development of early civilizations, including the significance and geography of trade networks and the agriculture techniques that allowed for an economic surplus and the emergence of city centers.
201Relax like a Hunter-gatherer! Nine Activities for Lifelong Relaxation Walking with awareness – we were designed to walk with awareness: awareness of our bodies, of changes to our surroundings, of the ground we walk on, of the animals and people we pass. Humans survived because of this ability to be acutely aware!Connecting to our body – yogaStudying things that interest usListening to or playing musicBeing in nature – animals/potted plantsMeditating - in meditation we make use of that part of the brain which also facilitates the freeze reaction-it is literally our escape from the danger of being over-stressed.ArtConnecting to the divine or being spiritualBeing with friends