Presentation on theme: "1st Year Fellow – Geriatric Medicine Baylor College of Medicine"— Presentation transcript:
11st Year Fellow – Geriatric Medicine Baylor College of Medicine GERIATRIC MEDICINE GRAND ROUNDS January 5th, TOPIC ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION IN ELDERLYPRESENTERAman Haider, MD1st Year Fellow – Geriatric MedicineBaylor College of Medicine
2SectionsIntroduction , Definitions & Background of Orthostatic Hypotension (OH)Epidemiology of OHPathogenesis of OHEtiology of OHClinical Presentation of OHEvaluation of OHManagement of OH
4IntroductionOrthostatic (postural) hypotension (OH) is a common disorder.Frequently under diagnosed.Frequent cause of syncope.Contributes to morbidity, disability and even mortality.It is a SYNDROME, and its prognosis depends on :Its Specific CauseIts SeverityThe Distribution of its Autonomic or Non-Autonomic involvement.
5Definition ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION is a reduction of … Systolic blood pressure of at least 20 mm Hg ORDiastolic blood pressure of at least 10 mm HgWithin 3 minutes of standing.An acceptable alternative to STANDING :Demonstration of a similar drop in blood pressure within 3 minutesUsing a tilt table in the head-up positionAt an angle of at least 60 degreesConsensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, pure autonomic failure, and multiple system atrophy. TheConsensus Committee of the American Autonomic Society and the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 1996;46:1470A Consensus Conference was held on November 16th, which was sponsored by the American Autonomic Society, and co-sponsored by the American Academy of Neurology with the specific aim of generating a consensus on three specific items:- the definition of orthostatic hypotension,- pure autonomic failure (idiopathic orthostatic hypotension, progressive autonomic failure), and- multiple system atrophy.2) They defined the orthostatic hypotension as such :Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a reduction of …- systolic blood pressure of at least 20 mm Hg OR- diastolic blood pressure of at least 10 mm Hg- within 3 minutes of standing.
6Limitations of Definition Does not take into account :The possibility that different blood pressure declines may have different clinical significance.Blood pressure changes that may occur after 3 minutes of standing.Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, pure autonomic failure, and multiple system atrophy. TheConsensus Committee of the American Autonomic Society and the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 1996;46:1470
7Confounding Variables Should be considered before making the diagnosis :Food ingestionRecent recumbencyTime of dayState of hydrationAmbient temperaturePostural deconditioningHypertension and anti-hypertensive medicationsGenderAgeConsensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, pure autonomic failure, and multiple system atrophy. The Consensus Committee of the American Autonomic Society and the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 1996;46:1470
9Prevalence Among Nursing Home Residents One Study to “Determine Patterns Of Within-day Orthostatic Blood Pressure Changes”Cross Sectional study with 911 residents from 45 nursing homes .Aged 60 years or older, able to stand for at least 1 minute.Supine ,1-minute and 3-minute standing BP + HR were measured.Before and after breakfast and before and after lunch.No OH = 48.5%Only once = 18.3%2-3 times = 19.9%4 or more times = 13.3%Most prevalent before breakfast, especially 1 minute after standing (21.3%)Least prevalent after lunch, after 3 minutes of standing (4.9%)Ooi WL, Barrett S, Hossain M, Kelley-Gagnon M, Lipsitz LA. Patterns of orthostatic blood pressure change and their clinical correlates in a frail, elderly population. JAMA Apr 23-30; 277(16):
10Prevalence In Community- Dwelling Elderly A study to “Assess Prevalence of Orthostatic Hypotension and its Associations”.A multicenter, observational, longitudinal study .Enrolled 5,201 men and women aged >65 yrs.Prevalence 14.8% for those age 65 to 69 and 26% for those age >85OH was associated significantly with :Difficulty walking (odds ratio, 1.23)Frequent falls (odds ratio, 1.52)H/o MI (odds ratio, 1.24)H/o TIA (odds ratio, 1.68)Isolated systolic hypertension (odds ratio, 1.35)Major EKG abnormalities (odds ratio, 1.21)Presence of carotid artery stenosis based on ultrasound (odds ratio, 1.67)Negatively associated with weight.Rutan GH, et al. Orthostatic hypotension in older patients. The cardiovascular health study. CHS collaborative research group.Hypertension. 19(6 Pt 1): , June 1992The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence of orthostatic hypotension and its associations with demographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors and symptomatology, prevalent cardiovascular disease, and selected clinical measurements in the Cardiovascular Health Studya multicenter, observational, longitudinal study enrolling 5,201 men and women aged 65 years and older at initial examination.Blood pressure measurements were obtained with the subjects in a supine position and after they had been standing for 3 minutes.The prevalence of asymptomatic orthostatic hypotension, defined as 20 mm Hg or greater decrease in systolic or 10 mm Hg or greater decrease in diastolic blood pressure, was 16.2%.This prevalence increased to 18.2% when the definition also included those in whom the procedure was aborted due to dizziness upon standing. The prevalence was higher at successive ages.Orthostatic hypotension was associated significantly withdifficulty walking (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.02, 1.46),frequent falls (odds ratio, 1.52; confidence interval, 1.04, 2.22)histories of myocardial infarction (odds ratio, 1.24; confidence interval, 1.02,130)H/O transient ischemic attacks (odds ratio, 1.68; confidence interval, 1.12, 2.51)isolated systolic hypertension (odds ratio, 135; confidence interval, 1.09, 1.68),major electrocardiographic abnormalities (odds ratio, 1.21; confidence interval, 1.03, 1.42)presence of carotid artery stenosis based on ultrasonography (odds ratio, 1.67; confidence interval, 1.23, 2.26).Orthostatic hypotension was negatively associated with weight
12Normal Postural Changes in BP Normal BP response on moving from a supine to a standing position :Small reduction (<10 mm Hg) in SBP & increase in DBP (~ 2.5 mm Hg).Gravity Induced Drop Approximately 500 to 1000 ml of blood is pooled in the lower extremities and in the splanchnic and pulmonary circulations.Response (Baroreflex) :Gravity Induced DropDecreased venous return to the heartTransient reduction in CO and BPStimulation of the baroreceptors in carotid arteries and aortaReflexively increased sympathetic tone Increased PVR (Vasoconstriction)Inhibits parasympathetic activity Increased HRRestoration of CO and BP by an increase in HR and PVR.baroreflex; it is mediated by afferent and efferent autonomic peripheral nerves and is integrated in autonomic centers in the brainstem.Orthostatic hypotension is the result of baroreflex failure (autonomic failure), endorgan dysfunction, or volume depletion.Injury to any limb of the baroreflex causes neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, although with afferent lesions alone, the hypotension tends to be modest and accompanied by wide fluctuations in blood pressure, including severe hypertension.Drugs can produce orthostatic hypotension by interfering with the autonomic pathways or their target end-organs or by affecting intravascular volume. Brain hypoperfusion, resulting from orthostatic hypotension from any cause, can lead to symptoms of orthostaticintolerance (eg, lightheadedness) and falls, and if the hypotension is severe, to syncope.
13Postural Changes in Elderly “Age-Related Changes” that can effect normal BP Regulation :
15EtiologyCauses of orthostatic hypotension can be broadly divided into acute and chronicAcute orthostatic hypotension most commonly develops over a relatively short period of time and is more often symptomatic at the outset.- Adrenal insufficiency, myocardial ischemia, medication administration, sepsis, or dehydrationChronic orthostatic hypotension develops gradually over a prolonged period of time and the patient is usually asymptomatic during theinitial period- PHYSIOLOGIC CAUSES are those attributable to the age-associated changes in blood pressure regulation described above, as wellas the age related increase in systolic blood pressure, which further impairs adaptive responses to hypotensive stresses.These physiologic changes predispose elderly people to symptomatic hypotension in the face of common everyday stresses,such as posture change, meals, new medications, fluid restriction, or any acute illness.- PATHOLOGIC CAUSES of chronic orthostatic hypotension are secondary to central or peripheral nervous system diseases that resultin autonomic insufficiencyOrthostatic hypotension may result from neurogenic and nonneurogenic causes.Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension can be due to neuropathy (eg, diabetic or autoimmune neuropathies) or to central lesions (eg,Parkinson disease or multiple system atrophy). Its presence, severity, and temporal course can be important clues in diagnosing Parkinsondisease and differentiating it from other parkinsonian syndromes with a more ominous prognosis, such as multiple system atrophy and Lewy body dementia.Nonneurogenic causes include cardiac impairment (eg, from myocardial infarction oraortic stenosis), reduced intravascular volume(eg, from dehydration, adrenal insufficiency),and vasodilation (eg, from fever, systemic mastocytosis).Common drugs that cause orthostatichypotensionare diuretics, alpha-adrenoceptorblockers for prostatic hypertrophy, antihypertensivedrugs, and calcium channel blockers.Insulin, levodopa, and tricyclic antidepressantscan also cause vasodilation and orthostatichypotension in predisposed patients.Poon and Braun,6 in a retrospective study inelderly veterans, identified hydrochlorothiazide,lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), trazodone(Desyrel), furosemide (Lasix), and terazosin(Hytrin) as the most common culprits.Gupta V, Lipsitz LA. Orthostatic hypotension in the elderly: diagnosis and treatment. Am J Med 2007 Oct; 120 (10):
16Drug that may Worsen OHA retrospective study in elderly veterans, identified hydrochlorothiazide, lisinopril (prinivil, zestril), trazodone (desyrel), furosemide (lasix), and terazosin (Hytrin) as the most common culprits.Figueroa JJ, Basford JR, Low PA, Preventing and treating orthostatic hypotension: As easy as A, B, C.Cleve Clin J Med, 77:2010,
18Symptoms Symptoms that develop … On assuming erect posture, OR Following head-up tilt, and usuallyResolve on resuming the recumbent position.Symptoms include :Lightheadedness, dizziness, blurred vision, weakness, fatigue, cognitive impairment, nausea, palpitations, tremulousness, headache, and neck ache (Coat Hanger Ache)Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, pure autonomic failure, and multiple system atrophy. The Consensus Committee of the American Autonomic Society and the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 1996;46:1470.In Elderly, disturbed speech, visual changes, falls, confusion, and impaired cognition are more common.Rutan GH, Hermanson B, Bild DE, et al. Orthostatic hypotension in older adults. The Cardiovascular Health Study. Hypertension. 1992; 19:Symptoms are related to cerebral hypoperfusion, with resulting lack of cerebral oxygenation causing lightheadedness, dizziness, weakness, difficulty thinking, headache, syn-cope, or feeling faint) and a compensatory autonomic overreaction (causing palpitations, tremulousness, nausea, coldness of extremities, chest pain, and syncope).
19OH – A Predictor of Mortality Orthostatic Hypotension Predicts Mortality in Elderly MenThe Honolulu Heart ProgramA cohort of 3522 Japanese American men 71 to 93 years old.Total of 473 deaths in the cohort over 4 years.52 of those who died had orthostatic hypotension4 year all cause mortality = Relative Risk 1.64 ( 95% CI 1.19 to 2.26 ** )** With the use of Cox proportional hazards models, after adjustment for age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, physical activity, seated systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medications, hematocrit, alcohol intake, and prevalent stroke, coronary heart disease and cancerMasaki KH, Schatz IJ and Burchfiel CM. Orthostatic hypotension predicts mortality in elderly men: the Honolulu Heart Program.Circulation. 1998; 98:
20Prognosis Of OHIn patients who have extrapyramidal and cerebellar disorders (eg, PD , MSA)The earlier and the more severe the involvement of the autonomic nervous system, the poorer the prognosis- Sandroni P, Ahlskog JE, Fealey RD, Low PA. Autonomic involvement in extrapyramidal and cerebellar disorders. Clin Auton Res 1991; 1:147–155.- Saito Y, Matsuoka Y, Takahashi A, Ohno Y. Survival of patients with multiple system atrophy. Intern Med 1994; 33:321–325.In hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus, the risk of death is higher if they have orthostatic hypotension.Luukinen H, Koski K, Laippala P, Kivelä SL. Prognosis of diastolic and systolic orthostatic hypotension in older persons. Arch InternMed 1999; 159:273–280.Diastolic OH is associated with a higher risk of vascular death in older persons.Hoeldtke RD, Streeten DH. Treatment of orthostatic hypotension with erythropoietin. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:611–615.
22Evaluation In ER Setting Syncope may be the initial presentation.A study to evaluate cause of syncope in 611 patients presenting at the ER.24 % had orthostatic hypotension.Sarasin FP, Louis-Simonet M, Carballo D, et al. Prospective evaluation of patients with syncope: a population-based study.Am J Med. Aug ;111(3):177-84
23Evaluation In Inpatient Care Setting The annual nationwide inpatient sample (NIS), sponsored by the AHRQDuring 2004, 80,095 orthostatic hypotension- related hospitalizations.OH listed as the primary diagnosis in 28,073 (35%) hospitalizations.Most frequent secondary diagnoses were :Atrial fibrillation (10.7%)Hypertension (8.9%)Syncope (8.2%)Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (7.7%)Congestive heart failure (6.7%)Urinary tract infection (4.6%)Shibao C, Grijalva CG, Raj SR, Biaggioni I, Griffin MR. Orthostatic hypotension-related hospitalizations in the United States.Am J Med Nov;120(11):975-80
24Evaluation In Outpatient Care Setting More likely to have Chronic EtiologiesReferred from the ER or hospital upon discharge for further testing.Usually have vague/ undifferentiated symptom description.Discontinuing vs changing medicationsMRI can be used to assess for possible etiologies of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.Further testing as indicated.
25Evaluation Evaluation Of Suspected OH Begins by identifying reversible causesUnderlying associated medical conditions.In addition to assessing for symptoms of orthostasisElicit symptoms of autonomic dysfunction involving the GI and GU tract.Detailed assessment of the motor nervous system should be performed to evaluate for signs of parkinson’s disease, as well as cerebellar ataxia.
26Evaluation of Orthostatic Hypotension Initial evaluation should include measuring blood pressure and heart rate after the patient has been quietly supine for at least 5 minutes and again after 1 minute and 3 minutes of standing.Early morning measurements, especially after a high carbohydrate meal, are useful to identify postprandial hypotension. Although postprandial hypotension may occur concomitantly with orthostatic hypotension, it is a distinct entity that often occurs while sitting after a meal, and may actually resolve upon standing up and walking.Gupta V, Lipsitz LA. Orthostatic hypotension in the elderly: diagnosis and treatment. Am J Med 2007 Oct; 120 (10):
27HistorYHISTORICAL FEATURESPOSSIBLE ETIOLOGYAbnormal Uterine Bleeding, Fatigue, Rectal BleedingAnemiaAmaurosis Fugax, Aphasia, Dysarthria, Unilateral Sensory & Motor SymptomsStrokeBradykinesia, Pill-rolling Tremor, Shuffling GaitParkinson DiseaseBurnsIntravascular Volume DepletionChest Pain, Palpitations, Shortness Of BreathCHF, MI, Myocarditis, PericarditisChills, Fever, Lethargy, Nausea, VomitingGastroenteritis, SepsisExtremity SwellingCHF, Venous InsufficiencyHigh-risk Sexual BehaviorAIDS, NeurosyphilisProgressive Motor WeaknessGBS , Multiple System AtrophyRelapsing Neurologic Symptoms In Various Anatomic LocationsMultiple SclerosisSymptoms After A MealPostprandial HypotensionOnce the diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension is established, a detailed history should be obtained, focusing on medications (both prescription and nonprescription), volume losses (vomiting, diarrhea, fluid restriction), coexisting medical disorders, and autonomic dysfunction.Evaluation and Management of Orthostatic Hypotension ; American Family Physician Volume 84, Number 5 ; September 1, 2011
28PHYSICAL EXAM Obtain Orthostatic Vital Signs. Supine Blood Pressure and pulse after 3 minutesStanding Blood Pressure and pulse after 3 minutesAs many as 2/3rd of patients may go undetected if BP is not measured while supine.Carlson JE. Assessment of orthostatic blood pressure:measurement technique and clinical applications. SouthMed J 1999; 92: 167–173.One retrospective review of 730 patients found that vital signs had poor test characteristics when compared with tilt-table testing for the diagnosis of OH.PPV = 61.7 %NPV= 50.2 %Cooke J, Carew S, O’Connor M, Costelloe A, Sheehy T, Lyons D. Sitting and standing blood pressure measurements are notaccurate for the diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension. QJM. 2009;102(5):
29Physical Exam Aphasia, Dysarthria, Facial Droop, Hemiparesis Stroke EXAMINATION FINDINGSPOSSIBLE DIAGNOSISAphasia, Dysarthria, Facial Droop, HemiparesisStrokeCogwheel Rigidity, Festinating Gait, Lack Of TruncalRotation While Turning, Masked FaciesParkinson DiseaseConfusion, Dry Mucous Membranes, Dry Tongue, Longitudinal Tongue Furrows, Speech Difficulty, Sunken Eyes, Upper Body WeaknessDehydration (In Older Patients)Decreased Libido, Impotence In Men; Urinary Retention And Incontinence In WomenPure Autonomic Failure.Dependent Lower Extremity Edema, Stasis DermatitisRight-sided Congestive Heart Failure, Venous InsufficiencyGummas, Unequal Pupils (Argyll Robertson Pupil)Loss Of Position And Vibration SensesTabes DorsalisEarly Satiety, Postprandial Fullness, Constipation, Incontinence, Exercise IntoleranceDiabetic NeuropathySmooth Beefy Red Tongue, Lemon Pallor, Recent Loss Of Mental Capacity, Paresthesias, AtaxiaPernicious AnemiaA comprehensive physical examination should be performed, seeking clinical clues to possible underlying physiological and pathological disorders.A neurological evaluation should include a mental status examination (to identify neurodegenerative disease and motor testing (Parkinson’s disease or multiple strokes), sensory testing (peripheral neuropathy), and pupillary size (Horner’s syndrome)Evaluation and Management of Orthostatic Hypotension ; American Family Physician Volume 84, Number 5 ; September 1, 2011
30Ancillary Tests / Imaging Conditions SuspectedBASICMETABOLIC PROFILEBUN & CrIntravascular volume depletionElectrolytesElectrolyte abnormalities from vomiting or diarrhea, or as cause of cardiac conduction abnormalities; clues to adrenal insufficiency (Dec Na & K)Serum GlucoseHyperglycemiaIMAGINGCT +/- MRINeurodegenerative disease, strokeCOMPLETEBLOODCOUNTWhite CountInfectionsH&HAnemiaPlatelet CountSepsisECHOCHF, Structural heart diseaseEKGCardiac arrhythmia, myocardial infarctionMORNING SERUM CORTISOL LEVELSAdrenal insufficiencySERUM VITAMIN B12 LEVELNeuropathy from vitamin B12 deficiencyTELEMETRY MONITORINGCardiac arrhythmiaRPR/ VDRLSyphilislaboratory tests should be obtained based on the results of these assessments.These may include hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to evaluate for anemia; blood electrolytes, urea nitrogen, and creatinine to assess for dehydration; a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test for syphilis; and a glucose tolerance test for diabetes.Evaluation and Management of Orthostatic Hypotension ; American Family Physician Volume 84, Number 5 ; September 1, 2011
31Head Up-Tilt (HUT) Indications for Head-up tilt testing High probability of OH despite an initial negative evaluation (e.g., PD)Patients with significant motor impairment that precludes them from having standing vital signs obtained.Lahrmann H.; Cortelli P.; Hilz M.; Mathias C.J.; Struhal W.; Tassinari M. EFNS guidelines on the diagnosis and management of orthostatic hypotension. Eur. J. Neurol. 2006, 13,To monitor the course of an autonomic disorder and its response to therapy.Gupta V, Lipsitz LA. Orthostatic hypotension in the elderly: diagnosis and treatment. Am J Med 2007 Oct; 120 (10):
32Procedure of HUTPerform tilt-table testing in a quiet room with a temperature of 68°F to 75°F.The patient should rest while supine for 5 minutes before testing is started.Continuous HR monitoring and blood pressure monitoring at regular intervals.The table should be slowly elevated to an angle between 60 to 80 * for 3 minutes.The test is considered Positive if systolic blood pressure falls 20 mm Hg below baseline or if diastolic blood pressure falls 10 mm Hg below baseline.Measurement of plasma noradrenaline levels while supine and upright may be of some value.If symptoms occur during testing, the patient should be returned to the supine position immediately.
33EvaluationThe procedure is generally considered safe, but serious adverse events such as syncope and arrhythmias have been reported.
34Responses to Head-Up Tilt Table Testing ConditionResponseNormalHR increases by 10 to 15 beats per minuteDBP increases by 10 mm Hg or moreDysautonomiaNo increase in heart rateImmediate and continuing drop in systolic and diastolic blood pressureNeurocardiogenic syncope( Occurs after 10 minutes or more of testing )BradycardiaSymptomatic, sudden drop in blood pressureOrthostatic hypotensionSBP decreases by 20 mm Hg or moreorDBP decreases by 10 mm Hg or morePostural orthostatictachycardia syndromeHeart rate increases by at least 30 beats/ minutePersistent tachycardia of more than 120 beats/ minute
36GOALS DO NOT CHASE THE NUMBERS ….!!!! Goals should be directed towards :Ameliorating symptomsRelieving orthostatic symptomsImproving the patient’s functional statusImproving standing timeReducing the risk of complications.Improving OH without excessive hypertensionCorrecting any underlying causeNo specific or single treatment is currently available that achieves all these goals.Drugs alone are never completely adequate.Therapies primarily consist of a combination of vasoconstrictor drugs, volume expansion, compression garments, and postural adjustment.Education about orthostatic stressors and warning symptoms empowers the patient to adopt easy lifestyle changes to minimize and handle orthostatic stress..
37Supine Hypertension Supine hypertension is a problem. Resulting from medication and/or being part of the disease.24 h measurement of BP is best if diagnosis uncertain.After starting a new therapy.Patients may self-monitor BP, daily at about the same time, andwhen they experience symptoms.Pressor medications should be avoided after 6pm and the bed head elevated(20–30 cm).On occasion, short acting antihypertensive drugs may be considered (e.g.Nitro-glycerine sublingual).Lahrmann H.; Cortelli P.; Hilz M.; Mathias C.J.; Struhal W.; Tassinari M. EFNS guidelines on the diagnosis and managementof orthostatic hypotension. Eur. J. Neurol. 2006, 13,.
38Management Pneumonic A B C D E F A Abdominal compression B Bolus of waterB Bed upC CountermaneuversD DrugsE EducationE ExerciseF Fluids and saltThe alphabetic order is not meant to represent a sequential approach to management, but rather to facilitate consideration of all the available treatments..
39Non-Pharmacologic Treatment A : Abdominal and Lower Extremity BindersPodoleanu C, Maggi R, Brignole M, et al. Lower limb and abdominal compression bandages prevent progressive orthostatichypotension in elderly persons: a randomized single-blind controlled study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48(7):B : Upto 1 to 2 L of fluid/ day to balance expected 24-hour urine losses increasestanding SBP by > 20 mm hg for approx. two hours.Shannon JR, Diedrich A, Biaggioni I, et al. Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes. Am J Med. 2002;112(5):B : Raise the head of the bed 10 to 20 degrees (~ 4 inches ) pts with autonomicfailure and supine hypertension reduce nocturnal hypertension and diuresis helps restore morning blood pressure upon standing.Van Lieshout JJ, Ten Harkel AD, Wieling W. Fludrocortisone and sleeping in the head-up position limit the postural decrease incardiac output in autonomic failure. Clin Auton Res 2000; 10:35–42.C : - Isometric exercises involving the arms, legs, and abdominal muscles.- Active standing with legs crossed, with or without leaning forward.Low PA, Singer W. Management of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension: an update. Lancet Neurol. 2008;7(5):In conditions in which there is adrenergic denervation of vascular beds, there is an increase in vascular capacitance and peripheral venous pooling. Compression of capacitance beds (ie, the legs and abdomen) improves orthostatic during violent aircraft maneuvers) inflated to 20 mm Hg—an increase of about 17/8 mm Hg. Higher gravity-suit pressures had a greater effect. In practical terms, the binder should be tight enough to exert gentle pressure. It should be put on before rising from bed in the morning and taken off when lying supine, to avoid supine hypertension. Advantages are that a binder’s effects are immediate, its benefits can be easily assessed, and it can be used on an as-needed basis by patients who need it only during periods of prolonged orthostatic stress. Binders are also easy to fit and are available in most sporting good stores and on the Web (try searching for “abdominal binder”).Physical countermaneuvers involve isometrically contracting the muscles below the waist for about 30 seconds at a time, which reduces venous capacitance, increases total peripheral, resistance, and augments venous return to the heart.These countermeasures can help maintain blood pressure during daily activities and should be considered at the first symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and in situations of orthostatic stress (eg, standing for prolonged periods).Rapidly drinking two 8-oz (500-mL) glasses of cold water helps expand plasma volume. It also, within a few minutes, elicits a significant pressor effect that is in part norepinephrine mediated, increasing the standing systolic blood pressure by more than 20 mm Hg for about 2 hours and improving symptoms and orthostatic endurance. This easy technique can be used when prolonged standing is expected (eg, shopping).The head of the bed of a patient with orthostatic hypotension should be elevated by 10 to 20 degrees or 4 inches (10 cm) to decrease nocturnal hypertension and nocturnal diuresis.During the day, adequate orthostatic stress, ie, upright activity, should be maintained. If patients are repeatedly tilted up, their orthostatic hypotension is gradually attenuated, presumably by increasing venomotor tone.The head of the bed of a patient with orthostatic hypotension should be elevated by 10 to 20 degrees or 4 inches (10 cm) to decrease nocturnal hypertension and nocturnal diuresis.21 During the day, adequate orthostatic stress, ie, upright activity, should be maintained. If patients are repeatedly tilted up, their orthostatic hypotension is gradually attenuated, presumably by increasing venomotor tone..
40Non-Pharmacologic Treatment D : D/c culprit medications If unable to D/C culprit medications; advise patient totake at bedtime such as anti-hypertensives.Freeman R. Clinical practice. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(6):E : EducationSymptom diary avoid identified precipitating factorsAvoid large carbohydrate-rich meals (to prevent postprandial hypotension)Limit alcohol intakeLahrmann H.; Cortelli P.; Hilz M.; Mathias C.J.; Struhal W.; Tassinari M. EFNS guidelines on the diagnosis and management oforthostatic hypotension. Eur. J. Neurol. 2006, 13,E : Exercise programs improves conditioning.Squatting has been used to alleviate symptomatic OHToe raises, thigh contractions, and bending over at the waist are recommendedLow PA, Singer W. Management of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension: an update. Lancet Neurol. 2008;7(5):.
41Non-Pharmacologic Treatment F : Fluid & SaltsUpto 1 to 2 L of fluid/ day increase standing SBP by > 20 mm hg.Shannon JR, Diedrich A, Biaggioni I, et al. Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes. Am J Med. 2002;112(5):Sodium supplementation adding extra salt to food or taking ~ 1 to 2 gms of salttablets TID.A 24-hour urine sodium level can aid in treatment.Value of <170 mmol per 24 hours, should be placed on 1 to 2 g ofsupplemental sodium three times dailyReevaluate in one to two weeksGoal of raising urine sodium to between 150 and 200 meq.Patients should be monitored for weight gain and edema.Low PA, Singer W. Management of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension: an update. Lancet Neurol. 2008;7(5):.
42FLUDROCORTISONE A synthetic mineralocorticoid. Reducing salt loss and expanding blood volume.Hussain RM, McIntosh SJ, Lawson J, Kenny RA. Fludrocortisone in the treatment of hypotensive disorders in the elderly.Heart 1996; 76:507–509.Sensitization of alpha-adrenoceptors.First line therapy (monotherapy) approved by FDA in 1955.Initial dose is 0.1 mg per day with increments of 0.1 mg every week.May be increased to 0.4 to 0.6 mg/day in refractory cases.Dose titration needed until :Resolution of the symptoms ORPatient develops trace peripheral edema ORWeight gain of 4 to 8 lbs ORThe maximum dose of 1 mg per day is reached.Gupta V, Lipsitz LA. Orthostatic hypotension in the elderly: diagnosis and treatment. Am J Med 2007 Oct; 120 (10):This medication is helpful when plasma volume fails to adequately increase with salt supplementation31 and for patients who cannot ingest enough salt or do not respond adequately to midodrine.If the patient gains 3 to 5 pounds (1.2–2.3 kg) and develops mild dependent edema, you can infer that the plasma volume has expanded adequately..
43FLUDROCORTISONE After oral administration, Peak plasma levels ~ 45 min Elimination half-life ~ 7 h.Adverse effects include :HeadacheSupine hypertensionCongestive heart failureHypokalemiaDose-dependentIn one study, hypokalemia in 24% of patients with mean onset at 8months.Hussain RM, McIntosh SJ, Lawson J, Kenny RA. Fludrocortisone in the treatment of hypotensive disorders in the elderly[published correction appears in Heart. 1997;77(3):294]. Heart. 1996;76(6):.
44MIDODRINE Prodrug with an active metabolite, Desglymidodrine. Peripheral selective alpha-1 adrenergic agonist; cause vasoconstriction.Absolute bioavailability ~ 93%The elimination half-life ~ 2–3 hDuration of action ~ 4 h.First approved by FDA in 1996.Significantly increase systolic BP avoid last dose after 6 pm to avoid supine HTN.Improve symptoms in patient with Neurogenic Hypotension.Synergistic effect when combined with fludrocortisone.Starting dose = 2.5 mg 3 times per day.Then 2.5 mg weekly increments until a max. of 10 mg TID is reached.Before arising from bed in morning ---- Before lunch ---- Mid-afternoonVasoconstrictorssuch as midodrine are ineffective when plasmavolume is reduced..
45MIDODRINE Adverse effects : Supine Hypertension (25%) Piloerection/ goose bumps (13%)Pruritis (scalp-10% & general- 2%)Paresthesia (9%)Contraindications :Coronary Artery DiseaseUrinary Retention (worsens urinary retention)ThyrotoxicosisAcute Renal Failure (Excreted in urine)FDA has issued a recommendation to withdraw midodrine from the market becauseof a lack of post-approval effectiveness data.U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Drug safety and availability. Midodrine update. September 2010..
46PROSTAGLANDIN INHIBITORS Block the vasodilating effects of prostaglandins raise the BP in some patients.Gupta V, Lipsitz LA. Orthostatic hypotension in the elderly: diagnosis and treatment. Am J Med 2007 Oct; 120 (10):In elderly patients, indomethacin should be avoided because of associatedconfusion.All NSAIDS should be used with caution due to gastrointestinal and renal sideeffects..
47CAFFEINE Adenosine-receptor blocker . Inhibits adenosine induced vasodilatation by blocking these receptors.Methylxanthine CaffeineAdministered in a dose of 200 mg every morning as 2 cups of brewed coffeeor by tablet.May attenuate symptoms in some patients.To avoid tolerance and insomnia, caffeine should not be given more thenonce in the morning..
48ERYTHROPOIETIN Exact mechanism of action is unknown Effect is probably due to increased red cell mass and blood volume.Shown to be effective in a subgroup of patients with anemia and autonomicdysfunction.Hoeldtke RD, Streetan DHP. Treatment of orthostatic hypotension with erythropoietin. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:Principal disadvantage of this drug is the Parenteral route of administration.Serious side effects include:HypertensionStrokeMyocardial infarction.
49PYRIDOSTIGMINE Cholinesterase inhibitor Potentiates sympathetic baroreflex pathway.Approved by FDA :Myaesthenia Gravis (1955)Bioterrorism Increase survival after exposure to Soman "nerve gas" poisoning (2003)Off-Label use for Orthostatic HypotensionUsed for patients with mild to moderate hypotension due modest pressor effect.Does not aggravate supine hypertension.Enhanced effect when taken with Midodrin 5 mg.Starting Dose : 30 mg TID increased to 60 mg TID.180 mg slow release pyridostigmine (Mestinon Timespan) can be taken once a day.Because this pathway is activated primarily during standing, this drug improves orthostatic hypotension and total peripheral resistance without aggravating supine hypertension. Because.
50PYRIDOSTIGMINE Adverse effects : Loose stools Diaphoresis HypersalivationFasciculationsBecause this pathway is activated primarily during standing, this drug improves orthostati hypotension and total peripheral resistance without aggravating supine hypertension.Because the pressor effect is modest, it is most adequate for patients with mild to moderate orthostatic hypotension..
51OCTREOTIDE Somatostatin Analogue Inhibits release of gastrointestinal peptides, some of which cause vasodilation.Administered subcutaneously starting with 25–50 mcg.In patients with pure autonomic failures :Reduces postural, post-parandial and exertional hypotension.Does not cause or increase nocturnal hypertension..
52OTHER AGENTS CLONIDINE Peripheral – alpha 2-adrenergic agonist May improve OH in patients with CNS causes of autonomic failure :By promoting peripheral venoconstriction.Thereby increasing venous return to the heart.YOHIMBINECentral –alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist..
53Indication for Referral Referral SpecialistIndicationsGeriatricianMultiple comorbid conditionsFailure of standard therapy to alleviate symptomsComplications, including recurrent falls, fracture, functional decline, ischemic events, decreased quality of lifeCognitive decline and confusionFrail elderly patientsCardiologistUncontrolled supine hypertension despite standard therapyAdvanced coronary artery disease or severe ischemic symptomsSevere left ventricular diastolic or systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction30%)Recent onset of tachy-/bradyarrhythmiaNeurologistSpecialized diagnostic testing for autonomic failureChronic and progressive autonomic failure
54SUMMARYRegardless of whether OH is symptomatic or asymptomatic, the elderly patientremains at significant risk for future falls, fractures, TIA and MI.The diagnostic evaluation of OH should include a comprehensive history andphysical examination, careful blood pressure measurements, and laboratory studies.Goals of treatment in the elderly patient include ameliorating symptoms, correctingany underlying cause, improving the patient’s functional status, and reducing the riskof complications, rather than trying to attain an arbitrary blood pressure goal..
55SUMMARYIn most cases, treatment begins with nonpharmacological interventions, includingwithdrawal of offending medications (when feasible), physical maneuvers,compression stockings, increased intake of salt and water, and regular exercise.If nonpharmacological measures fail to improve symptoms, pharmacologic agents should be initiated. Fludrocortisone, midodrine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, caffeine, and erythropoietin have all been used to treat orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure..
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