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1609 the Dutch East India Company hire English sailor Henry Hudson to find a northeast passage to India.

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1 1609 the Dutch East India Company hire English sailor Henry Hudson to find a northeast passage to India

2 Unsuccessfully searched above Norway Turned his ship west "northwest passage”

3 Cape Cod Cape Cod sailed into the mouth of a large river sailed into the mouth of a large river Hudson River Hudson River Made way as far as present-day Albany Made way as far as present-day Albany Claimed the entire Hudson River Valley for his Dutch employers Claimed the entire Hudson River Valley for his Dutch employers

4 Numerous unsuccessful efforts at colonization Numerous unsuccessful efforts at colonization Dutch Parliament chartered the West India Company Dutch Parliament chartered the West India Company joint stock company joint stock company families arrive families arrive establishing a settlement on present-day Manhattan establishing a settlement on present-day Manhattan Focus fur trade – purely business venture Focus fur trade – purely business venture

5 1626, Director General Peter Minuit arrived in Manhattan 1626, Director General Peter Minuit arrived in Manhattan "purchased" Manhattan Island from Native American Indians for the now legendary price of 60 guilders "purchased" Manhattan Island from Native American Indians for the now legendary price of 60 guilders Formally established New Amsterdam Formally established New Amsterdam Strengthened fort up Hudson River, named Fort Orange. Strengthened fort up Hudson River, named Fort Orange.

6 1630s new Director General Wouter van Twiller claimed lands by the Connecticut River 1630s new Director General Wouter van Twiller claimed lands by the Connecticut River Already claimed by English settlers Already claimed by English settlers Twiller forced to back down Twiller forced to back down Dutch lost any claims to the Connecticut Valley Dutch lost any claims to the Connecticut Valley

7 Dutch and Native Americans Around Fort Orange needs of the profitable fur trade required a careful policy of appeasement with the Iroquois Confederacy Around Fort Orange needs of the profitable fur trade required a careful policy of appeasement with the Iroquois Confederacy Lower Hudson Valley Lower Hudson Valley Colonists setting up small farms Colonists setting up small farms Native Americans viewed as obstacles Native Americans viewed as obstacles 1630s and early 1640s, the Dutch Director Generals carried on a brutal series of campaigns against the area's Native Americans 1630s and early 1640s, the Dutch Director Generals carried on a brutal series of campaigns against the area's Native Americans

8 1640 marked a turning point 1640 marked a turning point West India Company gave up monopoly West India Company gave up monopoly new economic activity new economic activity production of production of Food Food Timber Timber Tobacco Tobacco Slaves Slaves

9

10 Director General's preoccupation with Director General's preoccupation with Native Americans and border conflicts with the English Native Americans and border conflicts with the English greatly weakened other portions of colonial society greatly weakened other portions of colonial society 1647 Director General Peter Stuyvesant arrived 1647 Director General Peter Stuyvesant arrived New Netherland in disarray New Netherland in disarray

11

12 The English Arrive in America

13 John Cabot 1497

14 Roanoke Island 3 English voyages to settle North America in 1580s

15 After failure of Roanoke After failure of Roanoke no further English attempts at colonization until after the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603 no further English attempts at colonization until after the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603

16 THE REESTABLISHMENT OF VIRGINIA First permanent English settlement in the New World First permanent English settlement in the New World Jamestown Colony, Virginia, Jamestown Colony, Virginia, The place where The place where John Smith met Pocahontas John Smith met Pocahontas The colonists discovered how to grow tobacco The colonists discovered how to grow tobacco The English allowed their colonists to practice self-government. The English allowed their colonists to practice self-government.

17 This is the Jamestown of American myth This is the Jamestown of American myth Jamestown, in fact, was a notorious hellhole perched on the edge of a swamp Jamestown, in fact, was a notorious hellhole perched on the edge of a swamp And And Properly speaking it was not a colony at all Properly speaking it was not a colony at all

18 It was a business enterprise The property of the Virginia a Company of London, made up of stockholders and a governing board of directors which answered directly to James I. The property of the Virginia a Company of London, made up of stockholders and a governing board of directors which answered directly to James I.

19 such people “as yet live in darkness and miserable ignorance of the true knowledge and worship of God.” such people “as yet live in darkness and miserable ignorance of the true knowledge and worship of God.” Far more important a return on their investment. “I am not so simple to think that any other motive than wealth will ever erect in Virginia a Commweale.” JS

20 How would the Virginia Company enrich its stockholders? How would the Virginia Company enrich its stockholders? Gold and other minerals Gold and other minerals Trade with the Indians Trade with the Indians Production of pitch, tar, potash, etc Production of pitch, tar, potash, etc Development of a fishing industry Development of a fishing industry Northwest passage Northwest passage

21 After a year of planning After a year of planning Set sail for Virginia December 1606 Set sail for Virginia December on board 144 on board 3 ships, under the command of Captain Christopher Newport. 3 ships, under the command of Captain Christopher Newport.

22 The ships Susan Constant 120 tons Susan Constant 120 tons 71 passengers and crew 71 passengers and crew Godspeed less than 60 tons Godspeed less than 60 tons 52 people 52 people Discovery 20 tons Discovery 20 tons 21 People 21 People

23 Fleet held up for 6 weeks due to a storm Fleet held up for 6 weeks due to a storm Leadership of the ships was obvious but, Leadership of the ships was obvious but, Company kept names of control in VA a secret Company kept names of control in VA a secret Led to problems on board and later Led to problems on board and later

24 Rested several days in West Indies Left April 10 th 11 days later, ran into huge storm Lost sense of where they were By luck ended up in Chesapeake bay on April 26 th 1607 Settled on the newly named James River

25

26 Unable to exploit or utilize the native population, the Virginia settlers found the New World paradise far from utopian. Unable to exploit or utilize the native population, the Virginia settlers found the New World paradise far from utopian.

27 “A more damned crew hell never vomited,” The original colonizers were The original colonizers were “unruly Sparks, packed off by the Friends, to escape worse Destinies at home..., poor Gentlemen, broken Tradesmen, Rakes and Libertines, Footmen, and such Others, as were much fitter to spoil or ruin a Commonwealth, than to help to raise or maintain one.” “unruly Sparks, packed off by the Friends, to escape worse Destinies at home..., poor Gentlemen, broken Tradesmen, Rakes and Libertines, Footmen, and such Others, as were much fitter to spoil or ruin a Commonwealth, than to help to raise or maintain one.”

28 Mix of elite and poor quality workers led to social tension Mix of elite and poor quality workers led to social tension Clearly seen in the case of Captain John Smith. Clearly seen in the case of Captain John Smith.

29 Smiths Smiths military experience military experience skill as a cartographer and skill as a cartographer and Contacts in London Contacts in London ensured recruitment as a member of the first Jamestown expedition. ensured recruitment as a member of the first Jamestown expedition.

30 Little patience with men who claimed social origins excused them from manual labor Little patience with men who claimed social origins excused them from manual labor On the voyage On the voyage Clapped in irons on Feb 13, 1607 on the Susan Constant Clapped in irons on Feb 13, 1607 on the Susan Constant West Indies gallows built for Smith West Indies gallows built for Smith

31 Secret orders opened upon arrival revealed Smith named a member of the Virginia governing council. Secret orders opened upon arrival revealed Smith named a member of the Virginia governing council. September 1608 Smith had out- lasted most of his enemies, and for a year he ruled the colony as president of the council. September 1608 Smith had out- lasted most of his enemies, and for a year he ruled the colony as president of the council.

32 During his time as leader Smith During his time as leader Smith instituted Martial Law instituted Martial Law “If you don’t work you don’t eat” “If you don’t work you don’t eat” Generally acted as a dictator Generally acted as a dictator Left for England in 1609 Left for England in 1609

33 Starving Time

34 The worst of the problems began several weeks after Newport left The worst of the problems began several weeks after Newport left 6 th August 1607 began the terrible roll call 6 th August 1607 began the terrible roll call Aug 6 – “died John Ashbie of the bloudie Flixe” Aug 6 – “died John Ashbie of the bloudie Flixe” Aug 9 – “died George Flowre of the Swelling” Aug 9 – “died George Flowre of the Swelling” Aug 10 – “died William Bruster, of a wound given by the Savages” Aug 10 – “died William Bruster, of a wound given by the Savages” Aug 14 – “Jerome Alikok Ancient, died of a wound” Aug 14 – “Jerome Alikok Ancient, died of a wound” Aug 14 – “Edward Moris died suddenly” Aug 14 – “Edward Moris died suddenly”

35 Improved briefly while Smith was in charge Improved briefly while Smith was in charge But didn’t drastically improve for several years But didn’t drastically improve for several years A new boatload of colonists and supplies sank off the coast of Bermuda on its way to help the hungry settlement. A new boatload of colonists and supplies sank off the coast of Bermuda on its way to help the hungry settlement. Disease and hunger ravaged Jamestown. Disease and hunger ravaged Jamestown. Two desperate colonists were tied to posts and left to starve as punishment for raiding the colonies' stores. Two desperate colonists were tied to posts and left to starve as punishment for raiding the colonies' stores. One colonist even took to cannibalism, eating his own wife. One colonist even took to cannibalism, eating his own wife.

36 The English Arrive

37 John Cabot 1497

38 Roanoke Island 3 English voyages to settle North America in 1580s

39 After failure of Roanoke After failure of Roanoke no further English attempts at colonization until after the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603 no further English attempts at colonization until after the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603

40 THE REESTABLISHMENT OF VIRGINIA First permanent English settlement in the New World First permanent English settlement in the New World Jamestown Colony, Virginia, Jamestown Colony, Virginia, The place where The place where John Smith met Pocahontas John Smith met Pocahontas The colonists discovered how to grow tobacco The colonists discovered how to grow tobacco The English allowed their colonists to practice self-government. The English allowed their colonists to practice self-government.

41 This is the Jamestown of American myth This is the Jamestown of American myth Jamestown, in fact, was a notorious hellhole perched on the edge of a swamp Jamestown, in fact, was a notorious hellhole perched on the edge of a swamp And And Properly speaking it was not a colony at all Properly speaking it was not a colony at all

42 It was a business enterprise The property of the Virginia a Company of London, made up of stockholders and a governing board of directors which answered directly to James I. The property of the Virginia a Company of London, made up of stockholders and a governing board of directors which answered directly to James I.

43 such people “as yet live in darkness and miserable ignorance of the true knowledge and worship of God.” such people “as yet live in darkness and miserable ignorance of the true knowledge and worship of God.” Far more important a return on their investment. “I am not so simple to think that any other motive than wealth will ever erect in Virginia a Commweale.” JS

44 How would the Virginia Company enrich its stockholders? How would the Virginia Company enrich its stockholders? Gold and other minerals Gold and other minerals Trade with the Indians Trade with the Indians Production of pitch, tar, potash, etc Production of pitch, tar, potash, etc Development of a fishing industry Development of a fishing industry Northwest passage Northwest passage

45 After a year of planning After a year of planning Set sail for Virginia December 1606 Set sail for Virginia December on board 144 on board 3 ships, under the command of Captain Christopher Newport. 3 ships, under the command of Captain Christopher Newport.

46 The ships Susan Constant 120 tons Susan Constant 120 tons 71 passengers and crew 71 passengers and crew Godspeed less than 60 tons Godspeed less than 60 tons 52 people 52 people Discovery 20 tons Discovery 20 tons 21 People 21 People

47 Fleet held up for 6 weeks due to a storm Fleet held up for 6 weeks due to a storm Leadership of the ships was obvious but, Leadership of the ships was obvious but, Company kept names of control in VA a secret Company kept names of control in VA a secret Led to problems on board and later Led to problems on board and later

48 Rested several days in West Indies Left April 10 th 11 days later, ran into huge storm Lost sense of where they were By luck ended up in Chesapeake bay on April 26 th 1607 Settled on the newly named James River

49

50 Unable to exploit or utilize the native population, the Virginia settlers found the New World paradise far from utopian. Unable to exploit or utilize the native population, the Virginia settlers found the New World paradise far from utopian.

51 “A more damned crew hell never vomited,” The original colonizers were The original colonizers were “unruly Sparks, packed off by the Friends, to escape worse Destinies at home..., poor Gentlemen, broken Tradesmen, Rakes and Libertines, Footmen, and such Others, as were much fitter to spoil or ruin a Commonwealth, than to help to raise or maintain one.” “unruly Sparks, packed off by the Friends, to escape worse Destinies at home..., poor Gentlemen, broken Tradesmen, Rakes and Libertines, Footmen, and such Others, as were much fitter to spoil or ruin a Commonwealth, than to help to raise or maintain one.”

52 Mix of elite and poor quality workers led to social tension Mix of elite and poor quality workers led to social tension Clearly seen in the case of Captain John Smith. Clearly seen in the case of Captain John Smith.

53 Smiths Smiths military experience military experience skill as a cartographer and skill as a cartographer and Contacts in London Contacts in London ensured recruitment as a member of the first Jamestown expedition. ensured recruitment as a member of the first Jamestown expedition.

54 Little patience with men who claimed social origins excused them from manual labor Little patience with men who claimed social origins excused them from manual labor On the voyage On the voyage Clapped in irons on Feb 13, 1607 on the Susan Constant Clapped in irons on Feb 13, 1607 on the Susan Constant West Indies gallows built for Smith West Indies gallows built for Smith

55 Secret orders opened upon arrival revealed Smith named a member of the Virginia governing council. Secret orders opened upon arrival revealed Smith named a member of the Virginia governing council. September 1608 Smith had out- lasted most of his enemies, and for a year he ruled the colony as president of the council. September 1608 Smith had out- lasted most of his enemies, and for a year he ruled the colony as president of the council.

56 During his time as leader Smith During his time as leader Smith instituted Martial Law instituted Martial Law “If you don’t work you don’t eat” “If you don’t work you don’t eat” Generally acted as a dictator Generally acted as a dictator Left for England in 1609 Left for England in 1609

57 Starving Time

58 The worst of the problems began several weeks after Newport left The worst of the problems began several weeks after Newport left 6 th August 1607 began the terrible roll call 6 th August 1607 began the terrible roll call Aug 6 – “died John Ashbie of the bloudie Flixe” Aug 6 – “died John Ashbie of the bloudie Flixe” Aug 9 – “died George Flowre of the Swelling” Aug 9 – “died George Flowre of the Swelling” Aug 10 – “died William Bruster, of a wound given by the Savages” Aug 10 – “died William Bruster, of a wound given by the Savages” Aug 14 – “Jerome Alikok Ancient, died of a wound” Aug 14 – “Jerome Alikok Ancient, died of a wound” Aug 14 – “Edward Moris died suddenly” Aug 14 – “Edward Moris died suddenly”

59 Improved briefly while Smith was in charge Improved briefly while Smith was in charge But didn’t drastically improve for several years But didn’t drastically improve for several years A new boatload of colonists and supplies sank off the coast of Bermuda on its way to help the hungry settlement. A new boatload of colonists and supplies sank off the coast of Bermuda on its way to help the hungry settlement. Disease and hunger ravaged Jamestown. Disease and hunger ravaged Jamestown. Two desperate colonists were tied to posts and left to starve as punishment for raiding the colonies' stores. Two desperate colonists were tied to posts and left to starve as punishment for raiding the colonies' stores. One colonist even took to cannibalism, eating his own wife. One colonist even took to cannibalism, eating his own wife.

60 ‘The Starving Time’ New fleet arrives June 1609, brings 900 new settlers. New fleet arrives June 1609, brings 900 new settlers. Spring 1610 only 60 remain Spring 1610 only 60 remain Decide to return to England Decide to return to England Prevented by arrival of new Governor Lord De La Warre Prevented by arrival of new Governor Lord De La Warre Virginia on edge of extinction Virginia on edge of extinction

61 Laws Divine, Moral and Martial De La Warre, 1611 De La Warre, 1611 similar to Smith’s martial law similar to Smith’s martial law Very strict, aims to control populace Very strict, aims to control populace all to work collectively for survival of colony all to work collectively for survival of colony Begins to deter potential colonists Begins to deter potential colonists Widespread attachment to ‘rights of Englishmen’ Widespread attachment to ‘rights of Englishmen’ Response of Virginia Co Response of Virginia Co House of Burgesses House of Burgesses First elected body in North America, July 1619 First elected body in North America, July 1619 Again before Pilgrims Again before Pilgrims

62 REORGANIZATION AND TOBACCO After three years of near anarchy and failure After three years of near anarchy and failure Directors realize two things Directors realize two things not soldiers of fortune but ordinary farmers not soldiers of fortune but ordinary farmers cultivation of a staple crop. cultivation of a staple crop.

63 Promise of free land at the end of 7 years’ labor for the company. Promise of free land at the end of 7 years’ labor for the company new immigrants 1200 new immigrants Death and re-emigration to England reduced population to 350 Death and re-emigration to England reduced population to 350 Company raised the inducements Company raised the inducements

64 acres of land outright to anyone in England who would journey to the colony. 100 acres of land outright to anyone in England who would journey to the colony. No need to serve the company first No need to serve the company first Company allowed the election of a representative assembly Company allowed the election of a representative assembly Company shipped a boatload of unmarried women to the colony Company shipped a boatload of unmarried women to the colony to improve morale and touch off a small population explosion. to improve morale and touch off a small population explosion. More than 4,500 colonists arrived between 1619 and More than 4,500 colonists arrived between 1619 and 1624.

65 Reorganization and inducements pulled the colony out of disorder and unprofitability Reorganization and inducements pulled the colony out of disorder and unprofitability Crucial to Virginia’s revival was arrival of tobacco Crucial to Virginia’s revival was arrival of tobacco

66 King James on Tobacco and Smoking A custom Loathsome to the eye, hateful to the nose, harmful to the brain, dangerous to the lungs, and in the black stinking fumes thereof, nearest resembling the horrible stygian smoke of the pit that is bottomless,” A custom Loathsome to the eye, hateful to the nose, harmful to the brain, dangerous to the lungs, and in the black stinking fumes thereof, nearest resembling the horrible stygian smoke of the pit that is bottomless,”

67 Initially West Indies supplied the bulk of the crop Initially West Indies supplied the bulk of the crop Experiments with tobacco in Virginia proved phenomenally successful and profitable. Experiments with tobacco in Virginia proved phenomenally successful and profitable.

68 Virginia’s first crop shipped to England in 1617 Virginia’s first crop shipped to England in ,000 pounds exported ,000 pounds exported 1638 the crop exceeded 3,000,000 pounds the crop exceeded 3,000,000 pounds. Tobacco became to the Chesapeake what Tobacco became to the Chesapeake what sugar was to the West Indies sugar was to the West Indies silver was to Mexico and Peru. silver was to Mexico and Peru.

69 Tobacco, of course, would not grow by itself Tobacco, of course, would not grow by itself Tobacco planters looked to England Tobacco planters looked to England Young men Young men willing to sell their labor for four to seven years in exchange for willing to sell their labor for four to seven years in exchange for passage across the Atlantic passage across the Atlantic a chance to become independent landowners a chance to become independent landowners

70 Differed from the earlier employees only in that they had contracted their labor to an individual rather than to a company. Differed from the earlier employees only in that they had contracted their labor to an individual rather than to a company. Virginia success depended not on acquiring the right piece of land but on acquiring men. Virginia success depended not on acquiring the right piece of land but on acquiring men. A violent, dangerous, often short life. A violent, dangerous, often short life.

71 Richard Barnes Richard Barnes 1624 his tongue loosened by alcohol in a local tavern, Barnes uttered some “base and detracting” words against the resident governor 1624 his tongue loosened by alcohol in a local tavern, Barnes uttered some “base and detracting” words against the resident governor For this it was ordered that he For this it was ordered that he “be disarmed [and] have his armes broken and his tongue bored through with an awl [and] shall pass through a guard of 40 men and shalbe butted [with muskets] by every one of them and att the head of the troope kicked downe and footed out of the fort; that he shalbe banished out of James Citye and the lsland, that he shall not be capable of any priviledge of freedome of the countrey “be disarmed [and] have his armes broken and his tongue bored through with an awl [and] shall pass through a guard of 40 men and shalbe butted [with muskets] by every one of them and att the head of the troope kicked downe and footed out of the fort; that he shalbe banished out of James Citye and the lsland, that he shall not be capable of any priviledge of freedome of the countrey And Barnes was a freeman And Barnes was a freeman

72 An English merchant refused to take a boatload of indentured servants to Virginia because, as he explained, “servants were sold here up and down like horses.” An English merchant refused to take a boatload of indentured servants to Virginia because, as he explained, “servants were sold here up and down like horses.” Beginning of “a system of labor that treated men as things.” Beginning of “a system of labor that treated men as things.” c.10,000 persons transported to Virginia between 1607 and 1622, c.10,000 persons transported to Virginia between 1607 and 1622, about 2,000 still alive at the end of that period. about 2,000 still alive at the end of that period.

73 Native Virginia

74 The Rise of the Powhatans Central political development of late 16 th & 17 th C Central political development of late 16 th & 17 th C Not arrival of the English but Not arrival of the English but Rise of Powhatan chiefdom Rise of Powhatan chiefdom

75 Wahunsonacock ruled over thirty or so tribes Wahunsonacock ruled over thirty or so tribes Region known as Tsenacommacala Region known as Tsenacommacala Stretched from south of the James River to the Potomac Stretched from south of the James River to the Potomac and from the coast to the falls and from the coast to the falls

76 population at beginning of the 17 th C population at beginning of the 17 th C 15, 000– 20,0000 people, 15, 000– 20,0000 people, dispersed in several hundred villages and hamlets dispersed in several hundred villages and hamlets

77 Rivers and coastal waters provided means of travel Rivers and coastal waters provided means of travel Settlements were small by European standards, Settlements were small by European standards, fewer than a hundred people ‘”of kindred & alliance.” fewer than a hundred people ‘”of kindred & alliance.”

78 Illustration of Secota

79 Powhatan society was organized for war Powhatan society was organized for war response to the threat posed by powerful enemies to the north and west response to the threat posed by powerful enemies to the north and west War was the ultimate test for every male War was the ultimate test for every male a searching examination where only the strong, intelligent, or lucky would survive. a searching examination where only the strong, intelligent, or lucky would survive. Men were expected to display Men were expected to display strength and courage in hand-to-hand combat strength and courage in hand-to-hand combat fortitude if captured and tortured fortitude if captured and tortured wisdom in council. wisdom in council.

80 The English soon learned of Powhatan power The English soon learned of Powhatan power At the time of the English arrival At the time of the English arrival A native nation who lived at the entrance to the bay A native nation who lived at the entrance to the bay The Chesapeakes The Chesapeakes

81 Resisted absorption into Tsenacommacah Resisted absorption into Tsenacommacah Powhatan response was an military attack Powhatan response was an military attack Resulted in the slaughter of men, women, and children Resulted in the slaughter of men, women, and children

82 As chiefdom grew so did wealth and influence. As chiefdom grew so did wealth and influence. Governed territories through regional or district chiefs Governed territories through regional or district chiefs Opechancanough, Opitchapam, and Kekataugh maintained tight control over the Pamunkeys Opechancanough, Opitchapam, and Kekataugh maintained tight control over the Pamunkeys Sons Parahunt and Pochins ruled districts of Powhatan and Kecoughran at the falls and mouth of the James River respectively Sons Parahunt and Pochins ruled districts of Powhatan and Kecoughran at the falls and mouth of the James River respectively

83 Opechancanough Powahtan’s leading warrior Powahtan’s leading warrior Little is known about Opechancanough’s origins Little is known about Opechancanough’s origins Paquiquineo (Don Luis). Paquiquineo (Don Luis).

84 Back to James Town and John Smith

85 When provisions brought by the Indians began to run low When provisions brought by the Indians began to run low Smith and half a dozen men sent downriver to trade with the Kecoughtans at the mouth of the James River, Smith and half a dozen men sent downriver to trade with the Kecoughtans at the mouth of the James River, Smith eventually gets food and returns Smith eventually gets food and returns Corn did not last long. Corn did not last long.

86 Fell to Smith once again to lead the expedition Fell to Smith once again to lead the expedition Set off in early November for the discovery of the country of Chikhamania [Chickahominy] Set off in early November for the discovery of the country of Chikhamania [Chickahominy] Smith brought back sufficient food to ensure the colony was provisioned for the next few months Smith brought back sufficient food to ensure the colony was provisioned for the next few months Returned to the Chickahominy to complete his exploration of the river. Returned to the Chickahominy to complete his exploration of the river.

87 About twenty miles above Appocant, the last Chickahominy town About twenty miles above Appocant, the last Chickahominy town in a “vast and wilde wilderness,” in a “vast and wilde wilderness,” the Englishmen went ashore with the Indians. the Englishmen went ashore with the Indians. Within a quarter of an hour, Smith heard a loud cry and hallowing of Indians Within a quarter of an hour, Smith heard a loud cry and hallowing of Indians Taken captive rescued by Pocahontas Taken captive rescued by Pocahontas Or so the story goes Or so the story goes

88 Historians however disagree with Smiths report Historians however disagree with Smiths report Capture and release Capture and release Adoption/Incorporation Adoption/Incorporation And what of Pocahontas And what of Pocahontas

89 Pocahontas Pocahontas Given name was Matoaka, which contains an Algonkian root meaning “to play, playful.” Given name was Matoaka, which contains an Algonkian root meaning “to play, playful.”

90 Popular music told the tale of Pocahontas In 1950 Peggy Lee recorded “Fever” In 1950 Peggy Lee recorded “Fever” And as the lyrics tell us And as the lyrics tell us Captain Smith and Pocahontas Had a very mad affair When her daddy tried to kill him She said "Daddy oh don't you dare" "He gives me fever with his kisses" "Fever when he holds me tight" "Fever, I’m his missus" "Daddy won't you treat him right?"

91 Despite the popularity of lyrics like these and the Disney movie Despite the popularity of lyrics like these and the Disney movie What schoolchildren learn about Pocahontas throwing herself between the English settler John Smith and her tribesmen What schoolchildren learn about Pocahontas throwing herself between the English settler John Smith and her tribesmen The story may not be completely true The story may not be completely true

92 Firstly the ceremony itself, Smith described it as follows Firstly the ceremony itself, Smith described it as follows “two great stones were brought before Powhatan: then as many as could lay hands on him draged him to tehm, and thereon laid his head, and being ready with their clubs to beate out his brains, Pocahontas the Kings dearest daughter, when no entrity could prevaile got her head in her arms, and laid her owne upon his to save him from death” “two great stones were brought before Powhatan: then as many as could lay hands on him draged him to tehm, and thereon laid his head, and being ready with their clubs to beate out his brains, Pocahontas the Kings dearest daughter, when no entrity could prevaile got her head in her arms, and laid her owne upon his to save him from death”

93 Pocahontas (1595?-1617) herself was no myth. Pocahontas (1595?-1617) herself was no myth. She did know Smith She did know Smith may have been present at his supposed near execution may have been present at his supposed near execution Although only about 11 years of age Although only about 11 years of age

94 So it is really possible that an 11 year old girl fell passionately in love with a short, fat, grizzled, bearded, smelly Englishman? So it is really possible that an 11 year old girl fell passionately in love with a short, fat, grizzled, bearded, smelly Englishman? If not what other reason can we assign to her actions? If not what other reason can we assign to her actions?

95 Lets look at her after this date Lets look at her after this date In 1614, in an alliance to secure friendly relations, Pocahontas married John Rolfe She was later lured aboard a British ship in the Jamestown area and held captive for more than a year

96 In 1616, as part of a plan to revive support for the VA colony, the couple traveled to England with their infant son In 1616, as part of a plan to revive support for the VA colony, the couple traveled to England with their infant son Before leaving she met for several days with Powhatan Before leaving she met for several days with Powhatan There she met King James I and Queen Anne There she met King James I and Queen Anne Just as she and Rolfe were setting sail back to America the following March, Pocahontas died, perhaps because pneumonia or possibly tuberculosis. Just as she and Rolfe were setting sail back to America the following March, Pocahontas died, perhaps because pneumonia or possibly tuberculosis.

97 Sexy Savior of James Town Sexy Savior of James Town Dutiful Daughter of Powhatan


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