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Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall8-1 Managing Behavior In Organizations Sixth Edition Jerald Greenberg.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall8-1 Managing Behavior In Organizations Sixth Edition Jerald Greenberg."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall8-1 Managing Behavior In Organizations Sixth Edition Jerald Greenberg

2 Organizational Communication Chapter Eight

3 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-3 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Learning Objectives DEFINE communication and DESCRIBE the various steps in the communication process RECOGNIZE the differences between formal and informal communication in organizations DISTINGUISH between verbal communication – both traditional and computer mediated – and nonverbal communication, and the factors that make each effective IDENTIFY various inspirational techniques that can be used to enhance one’s effectiveness as a communicator DESCRIBE what it takes to be a supportive communicator EXPLAIN how to meet the challenges associated with communicating with people from different cultures

4 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-4 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Organizational Communication Three Good Reasons Why You Should Care About... Organizational Communication 1.Although managers spend a great deal of time communicating with others, they tend not to do so as effectively as possible. 2.Properly managing organizational communication is key to individual and organizational effectiveness. 3.There are several things you can do to enhance your organizational communication skills.

5 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-5 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Communication: Its Basic Nature Communication - the process by which a person, group or organization (the sender) transmits some type of information (the message) to another person, group or organization (the receiver). Channels of communication include telephone lines, radio and television signals, fiber-optic cables, mail routes, and even the airwaves that carry the vibrations of our voices.

6 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-6 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Encoding is the process of translating an idea into a form, such as written or spoken language, that can be recognized by a receiver. Decoding is the process of converting a message back into a sender’s original ideas. Feedback is the process of providing information about the impact of a message on the receiver. Noise is the name given to factors that distort the clarity of messages. The Process of Communication

7 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-7 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Communication serves at least eight critical functions in organizations 1.Directing action 2.Linking and coordination 3.Building relationships 4.Explaining organizational culture 5.Interorganizational linking 6.Presenting an organization’s image 7.Generating ideas 8.Promoting ideals and values Purposes of Communication

8 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-8 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Levels of Communication

9 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-9 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Formal Communication Formal communication is the process of sharing official information with others who need to know it.

10 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-10 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Technology has changed communication. Technology has sped up the pace of work. Teams enhance the need for coordination. Employees are likely to be distributed geographically. Knowledge and information are keys to success. Technology has transformed the way people do their jobs. The Role of Technology

11 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-11 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Formal communication usually follows the prescribed pattern of interrelationships between various units of an organization, which is commonly depicted in an organizational chart Show who is supposed to communicate with whom Organizational Charts

12 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-12 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Downward, Upward, and Horizontal Downward communication - instructions, directions, and orders – that is, messages telling subordinates what they should be doing – as well as feedback Upward communication - messages that managers need to do their jobs, such as data required to complete projects, suggestions for improvement, status reports, and new ideas Horizontal communication - messages that flow laterally, including efforts at coordination and attempts to work together

13 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-13 Informal Communication Informal communication consists of information shared without any formally imposed obligations or restrictions. Social media has made the sharing of informal communication possible for anyone.

14 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-14 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Informal Communication The grapevine refers to the pathways along which unofficial information travels. About 70% of what people learn about their companies is transmitted via the grapevine. Rumors are messages that transmit information that is almost totally without any basis in fact and is unverifiable.

15 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-15 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Verbal communication consists of transmitting and receiving ideas using words. Oral: face-to-face talks, telephone conversations Written: faxes, letters, messages Nonverbal communication consists of transmitting and receiving ideas without words. Facial gestures, body language, clothes

16 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-16 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Computer-Mediated Communication Computer-mediated communication is verbal communication in organizations that occurs with the assistance of computers, such as web conferencing, text messaging and instant messaging.

17 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-17 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Using “Emoticons” Emoticons are simple graphic representations of facial expressions to convey emotions Among the most common:  :-) smile  :-( frown  ;-) wink

18 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-18 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal communication involves the transmission of messages without the use of words Types:  Mode of dress  Waiting time  Seating position

19 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-19 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Communicating Leadership Potential Stand and sit using an erect posture. Avoid slouching. When confronted, stand up straight. Do not cower. Nod your head to show that you are listening to someone talk. Maintain eye contact and smile at those with whom you are talking. Use hand gestures in a relaxed, non-mechanical way. Always be neat, well groomed, and wear clean, well-pressed clothes.

20 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-20 Improving Your Communication Skills Use inspirational communication tactics Be a supportive communicator Encourage open feedback Use simple language Avoid overload Walk your talk Be a good listener

21 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-21 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Inspirational Communication Project confidence and power with emotion-provoking words Be credible Pitch your message to the listener Avoid “junk words” that dilute your message Use front-loaded messages Cut through the clutter

22 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-22 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall How to Project Confidence Rule Explanation or Example Always know exactly what you want: The more committed you are to achieving a certain end, the more clearly and powerfully you will be able to sell your idea. Use the pronoun I unless you are a part of a team: This allows you to take individual credit for your ideas. Downplay uncertainty: If you are unsure of your opinion, make a broad but positive statement, such as “I am confident this new accounting procedure will make things more efficient.” Ask very few questions: You may come across as being weak or unknowledgeable if you have ask what something means or what’s going on. Don’t display disappointment when your ideas are challenged: It is better to act as though opposition is expected and to explain your viewpoint. Make bold statements: Be bold about your ideas, but avoid attacking anyone personally

23 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-23 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Supportive Communication Supportive communication involves showing people that you are interested in what they have to say, and responding in a way that strengthens the relationship between you Techniques:  Focus on the problem rather than the person  Match your words and your body language  Acknowledge the other person’s ideas  Keep the conversation going

24 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-24 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Encourage Open Feedback 360-degree Feedback - formal systems in which people at all levels give and receive feedback to others at different levels, including outsiders Suggestion Systems- procedures that provide formal mechanisms to employees for presenting their ideas to the company Corporate Hotlines - telephone lines staffed by experts ready to answer employees’ questions, listen to their comments, and the like

25 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-25 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Use Simple, Clear Language Using needlessly formal language imposes a serious barrier to communication Jargon - the specialized language used by a particular group (e.g., people within a profession)  K.I.S.S. Principle – a basic principle of communication advising that messages should be as short and simple as possible (an abbreviation for keep it short and sweet)

26 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-26 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Avoid Information Overload Suggestions for avoiding overload:  Rely on gatekeepers  Practice queuing  Screen phone calls  Filter your

27 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-27 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Improving Listening Skills

28 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-28 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Communication in a Global Economy Two fundamental facts: 1.Business relationships today span various national relationships. 2.The workforce within most countries is multilingual.

29 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-29 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall How to Say No in Japan

30 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-30 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall Cross-Cultural Communication: Avoiding Pitfalls Learn local cultural rules Don’t take anything for granted Show respect for everyone Speak slowly, clearly, and in straightforward language Try to speak the local language – at least a little Beware of nonverbal differences

31 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall 8-31 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall You Say Tomato, I Say Domates… Communicating in a multilingual workforce Establishing English-only rules  Do they help with communication? Embracing a multilingual workforce  Serving a diverse customer bases Learning to communicate in English  Language training

32 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall32


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