2The anatomic positionThis is our standard frame of reference when describing the body. This standard position can be described as:Standing up straight so the body is erect and facing forwardHolding the arms at the sides with the hands turned with the palms facing forward.
3Anatomic reference systems …are used to describe the locations of the stuctural units of the body. There are several ways to describe the location of body parts:Body PlanesBody DirectionsBody Cavities
4Body PlanesImaginary lines used to divide the body into sections for descriptive purposes. The planes are in reference to anatomic positionVertical planes (up and down)Midsagittal (also known as midline) divides the body into equal left and right halvesSagittal plane is a vertical line that divides the body into unequal left and right portionsFrontal plane (also known as coronal plane) divides the body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions.
5Horizontal Plane (side to side plane) Transverse plane divides the body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions. It can be at waist-level or any other level across the body.
6Body Directional terms Opposite Directional TermVentral: front or belly sideDorsal: back of the body or organAnterior: situated in frontPosterior: situated in the backSuperior: upper most, above, toward the headInferior: lowermost, below or toward the feetCephalic: toward to the headCaudal: toward the lower part of the body or tailProximal: situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure (usually compares structures on upper or lower limbs)Distal: Situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure (usually compares structures on upper or lower limbs)Medial: The direction toward or nearer the midline.Lateral: Direction toward or nearer the side and away from the midlineBilateral: relating to, or having, both sides