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Anatomical reference systems

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomical reference systems"— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomical reference systems

2 The anatomic position This is our standard frame of reference when describing the body. This standard position can be described as: Standing up straight so the body is erect and facing forward Holding the arms at the sides with the hands turned with the palms facing forward.

3 Anatomic reference systems
…are used to describe the locations of the stuctural units of the body. There are several ways to describe the location of body parts: Body Planes Body Directions Body Cavities

4 Body Planes Imaginary lines used to divide the body into sections for descriptive purposes. The planes are in reference to anatomic position Vertical planes (up and down) Midsagittal (also known as midline) divides the body into equal left and right halves Sagittal plane is a vertical line that divides the body into unequal left and right portions Frontal plane (also known as coronal plane) divides the body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions.

5 Horizontal Plane (side to side plane)
Transverse plane divides the body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions. It can be at waist-level or any other level across the body.

6 Body Directional terms
Opposite Directional Term Ventral: front or belly side Dorsal: back of the body or organ Anterior: situated in front Posterior: situated in the back Superior: upper most, above, toward the head Inferior: lowermost, below or toward the feet Cephalic: toward to the head Caudal: toward the lower part of the body or tail Proximal: situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure (usually compares structures on upper or lower limbs) Distal: Situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure (usually compares structures on upper or lower limbs) Medial: The direction toward or nearer the midline. Lateral: Direction toward or nearer the side and away from the midline Bilateral: relating to, or having, both sides

7 Body planes and directions

8 Major body cavities

9 A body cavity is a space within the body that contains and protects internal organs. Can you name one organ found in each cavity?

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