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Male Reproductive System

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1 Male Reproductive System
Unit 5: Reproduction Male Reproductive System Female Reproductive System

2 Label the following diagram
Bladder Rectum Vas deferens Seminal Vesicle Urethra Ejaculatory duct Prostate gland Penis Cowper’s gland Glans 3% of boys are born with testes that have not descended properly – can be corrected surgically Epididymis Prepuce (Foreskin) Testis The scrotum regulates the temperature of the testes. Scrotum Sperm form best at 35oC.

3 Label the following diagram
Ureter (carries urine from kidney to bladder) Bladder Seminal Vesicle Prostate gland Cowper’s gland Epididymis Vas deferens Vasa (ductus) deferentia Testes Urethra Link with pictures

4 Test Yourself Vas Deferens Seminal Vesicles Prostate gland
Cowper’s gland Epididymis Testis Scrotum Penis Pubic Bone Bladder Urethra

5 Wall of Seminiferous tubule
Male Testes Vas deferens Interstitial Cells In between seminiferous tubules. Produce testosterone epididymis Seminiferous Tubules Where sperm are made sperm Developing Follicles (n) Sperm Sertoli Cell Follicle (2n) Wall of Seminiferous tubule Nourishes sperm, secretes inhibin, spermatogenesis, stimulated by FSH and testosterone

6 Testes- sperm formation
Follicle

7 Testes Sertoli cells in Seminiferous tubules Interstitial cells
Contain: Sertoli Cells (in seminiferous tubules) Secrete chemicals required for the nourishment and development of sperm cells Responsible for spermatogenesis. Protection from man’s immune system Produce inhibin hormone to slow sperm production Influenced by FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) from pituitary and by testosterone from interstitial cells. 2. Interstitial Cells (b/w seminiferous tubules) Produce testosterone Influenced by LH (leutinizing hormone) from the pituitary Sertoli cells in Seminiferous tubules Interstitial cells

8 Diagram from Diploma Exam
3. sperm Meiosis 4. Sertoli cell 2. follicles 1. Interstitial cells

9 Contains an enzyme to penetrate layers surrounding the ovum
Sperm Head Acrosome and nucleus (23 chromosomes) Middle Mitochondria for energy Contains an enzyme to penetrate layers surrounding the ovum Tail Flagellum for swimming Sperm moves at a rate of 3mm/hour Life span of a sperm cell: In the epididymis - many years In semen – at body temperature, days Stored at -100oC - many years Watch sperm swim

10 Pathway of Sperm The Great Sperm Race
Testes Vas deferens Ejaculatory duct Epididymis Vas deferens Ejaculatory Duct Urethra Epididymis

11 Scrotum and Epididymis
- Skin and muscle covering the testes - Allows sperm to develop at optimal temperature (35oC) Scrotum Epididymis - storage and maturation of sperm - the immune system destroys the “bad” sperm - develop a flagellum to swim. Epididymis

12 Vas Deferens and Ejaculatory Duct
Ductus (Vas) Deferens – carries sperm from epididimus-> ejaculatory duct Vas deferens Ejaculatory duct Ejaculatory Duct regulates the movement of semen into the urethra. In Latin, the term “deferens” means “to carry” (A sphincter regulates the removal of urine from the bladder.)

13 Penis and Urethra Urethra
- carries semen (reproductive system) and urine (excretory system).

14 an acronym to remember the order
Seminal Fluid Student Price Card an acronym to remember the order Secreted by Accessory Glands: Seminal Vesicle Prostate gland 3/4 ml/ejaculate contains 500 million sperm Cowper’s gland

15 Seminal Fluid (Semen) 1) Seminal vesicles - 60% of total fluid
Contains fructose for energy and Prostaglandins which cause rhythmic contractions of the smooth muscles in female, which help sperm move up the uterus. Seminal Vesicle Prostate gland 3/4 ml/ejaculate contains 500 million sperm Cowper’s gland

16 Seminal Fluid (Semen) 2) Prostate gland:
alkaline buffer and mucus that protects sperm against acidic environments in the urethra and the vagina. Increases mobility of sperm Seminal Vesicle Prostate gland 3/4 ml/ejaculate contains 500 million sperm Cowper’s gland

17 Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer – Due to genetics, diet and lifestyle. Symptoms: Difficulty urinating, blood in urine, erectile dysfunction. Diagnose with a rectal exam. (Start testing at ~age 40.) Prostate gland 3/4 ml/ejaculate contains

18

19 Sperm + seminal fluids = semen
Seminal Fluid (Semen) 3) Cowper’s gland: Secretes a mucus and alkaline buffer prior to ejaculation protects against acid in urine and increases mobility. May contain sperm (reason for high failure rate of withdrawal method) Seminal Vesicle Prostate gland Cowper’s gland 3/4 ml/ejaculate contains 500 million sperm Sperm + seminal fluids = semen

20 Semen In one ejaculate there is about 3 – 4 mL of fluid and about 40 – 100 million sperm cells per mL (Note: at least a few dozen must reach the egg to ensure fertilization!) Seminal Vesicle Prostate gland 3/4 ml/ejaculate contains 500 million sperm Cowper’s gland

21 Penis Delivers semen to female vagina
Arterioles dilate  increase blood flow Fills with blood to become erect Compresses veins that carry blood away from penis  pressure builds  erection Dilation of the arteries (erection) of the penis is under the influence of the parasympathetic nervous system.

22 The Great Sperm Race Ejaculation: the release of semen through the urethra Ejaculation is accomplished by the contraction of the vas deferens, the prostate and the muscles at the base of the penis, under the influence of the sympathetic nervous system. Refractory period: period of time that must pass prior to a second erection.

23

24

25 How is a penis like a camera?
Because for both you just Point and Shoot... Point = Parasympathetic… controls erections Shoot = Sympathetic controls ejaculations

26 Impotency Impotency: inability to produce or maintain an erection.
Possible causes: - hormone imbalance - problem with parasympathetic nerves (damage) -drugs / alcohol / smoking -Stress

27 Puberty in boys Puberty is when the reproductive system completes its development and becomes fully functional Puberty begins when the hypothalamus begins releasing gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) GnRH acts on the anterior pituitary to produce FSH and LH Puberty begins

28 Hormonal Control Testosterone- stimulates: Brain spermatogenesis
primary characteristics (reproductive organs) secondary characteristics (deepening of voice, facial and pubic hair, muscle growth) Inhibin – produced by the Sertoli cells to inhibit FSH production which slows sperm production Master Gland

29 _ _ Hypothalamus (GnRH) Anterior pituitary Testis Interstitial inhibin
Draw it! Hypothalamus (GnRH) Anterior pituitary _ FSH LH _ Testis Sertoli cells Interstitial Cells inhibin Sperm production Testosterone

30 Andropause Decline in testosterone production in men
Happens around age 40 Results in depression, fatigue, drop in sperm production, and loss of muscle and bone mass Treatment: testosterone supplements, exercise

31 Male Reproductive System (within testes – not visible here)
Mini-Review 1. Arrange the following structures in the order that sperm passes through them: vas deferens urethra epididymis seminiferous tubules ejaculatory duct 1. vas deferens 5. ejaculatory duct 3. epididymis 2. urethra 4. seminiferous tubules (within testes – not visible here) 4, 3, 1, 5, 2

32 Male Reproductive System
Mini-Review 2. What is the significance of the acrosome of the sperm? A: The acrosome contains enzymes needed to help the sperm penetrate through the protective layer surrounding a female egg

33 Male Reproductive System
Mini-Review 3. What is the difference between interstitial cells and Sertoli cells? Interstitial cells: Located between seminiferous tubules Secrete testosterone Sertoli cells: Located inside seminiferous tubules Nourish and support developing sperm Responsible for spermatogenesis Release inhibin

34 Male Reproductive System
Mini-Review 3. Where are sperm made? Seminiferous Tubules Follicle cells are stimulated by the sertoli cells to undergo meiosis.

35 Label the following diagram
fallopian tube (oviduct) ureter ovary fimbriae uterus bladder cervix urethra clitoris vagina labium minora labium majora

36 Label the following diagram
fallopian tube (usual site of fertilization) Endometrium (uterine lining) Fimbriae (catches the egg) Uterus (usual site of implantation) Ovary (oogenesis, estrogen and progesterone) Cervix (opening of uterus) Vagina (birth canal)

37 Ovaries – site of oogenesis
Females have 2 ovaries, which alternate each month to produce an egg/ovum (oogenesis). Follicles: ovum (egg) (female gametes) & accessory cells (“Granulosa cells”), secrete estrogen Corpus luteum: secretes hormones (Estrogen & Progesterone) . Fallopian tube ovary Ovaries contain ~ 400,000 egg cells, but only ~ 400 actually mature between the ages of 12 – 50.

38 Ovum (egg) NOVA: The Egg’s Journey sperm Ovary
The egg is larger than sperm because the cytoplasm in the egg has to provide enough nutrients for 5 days if the egg is fertilized. Add characteristics of the ovum sperm Ovary The ovum lives for 24 hours after ovulation. NOVA: The Egg’s Journey

39 Ovulation - When a follicle matures, it ruptures, releasing the ovum
Fimbrae - picks up ovum from ovary (finger-like extensions of fallopian tube) Fallopian tube (Oviducts) passage from ovary to uterus; site of fertilization Fallopian tube Fimbriae ovary

40 Uterus Uterus – site of embryo development, two layers:
Endometrium Uterus – site of embryo development, two layers: endometrium – nourishes embryo; shed during menstruation; blood vessel rich Myometrium – muscular layer Cervix – muscular opening to uterus cells constantly shed and replaced Vagina – entrance for the penis as well as birth canal Uterus cervix vagina Uterus – pear shape and size A pap smear checks for changes in the cells of the cervix. Changes may indicate infection, unhealthy cervical cells, or cervical cancer (can be caused by HPV(genital warts).

41 Fertilization and Implantation
Pathway for sperm: vagina cervix uterus Fallopian tube Fallopian tube Uterus cervix Fertilization usually occurs in the fallopian tubes and implantation occurs in the uterus. vagina

42 Puberty in Girls At puberty, the hypothalamus releases gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) GnRH activates the anterior pituitary to release FSH and LH FSH secretions are carried by the blood to the ovary where follicle development is stimulated. The follicles within the ovary secrete estrogen into the blood which stimulates the development of the secondary female characteristics: breasts, hair, wider hips.

43 Female Reproductive Goals
Develop follicle (egg) Develop Endometrium Ovulate Fertilize and Implant Maintain Corpus Luteum and Endometrium (or shed to reset for next month) This is all accomplished via horomonal control!!!!!!!!

44 Oogenesis: female meiosis!
Begins before birth in ovaries… 1 oogonia (2n)  differentiates into 1 primary oocyte (2n) Meiosis I stops at Prophase I until puberty After puberty… Each month, 1 primary oocyte finishes Meiosis I  1 secondary oocyte (1n) & 1 polar body (1n)  Ovulation: secondary oocyte to fallopian tubes IF fertilized… secondary oocyte (1n)  Meiosis II  1 Ovum (1n) & 1 polar body

45 Menstrual Cycle Estrogen Progesterone and estrogen
~28 days long Estrogen From pituitary: FSH follicles Immature follicles (2n) Ovum (n) LH Ovum released – ovulation (day 14) Girls have 2 million folicles, some will degenerate and are left by puberty, but only 400 will mature Meiosis II occurs in fallopian tube if fertilized Corpus luteum Progesterone and estrogen Order of hormones: FELP

46 Hormones of the Menstrual Cycle
GnRH: stimulated by high levels of E, inhibited by high E & P, causes FSH/LH release FSH: promotes follicle growth LH: promotes ovulation, corpus luteum formation  E & P production

47 Hormones of the Menstrual Cycle
High E & P: promotes growth of endometrium, inhibits menstruation, inhibits GnRH  inhibits FSH/LH inhibits follicle growth & ovulation decrease of E & P triggers menstruation

48 Hormones of the Menstrual Cycle
hCG (“human chorionic gonadotropin hormone”): hormone secreted by embryo; prevents corpus luteum breakdown  allows E & P to stay high pregnancy test: checks hCG in urine

49 Follicle Corpus luteum
Draw it! Hypothalamus (GnRH) Anterior pituitary FSH LH (-) For FSH & LH (-) For FSH Ovary Follicle Corpus luteum (+) For LH Estrogen Progesterone and estrogen

50 Menstrual Cycle: ~28 days
1. Flow phase (Day 1-5) endometrium is shed; follicle growth in ovary Estrogen and progesterone levels are low Flow Phase

51 Menstrual Cycle: ~28 days
2. Follicular phase (Days 6-13): follicles grow and mature  secrete Estrogen endometrium thickens Stimulates GnRH & LH FollicularPhase

52 Menstrual Cycle: ~28 days
3. Ovulation (Day 14): LH peaks causing secondary oocyte to burst from the follicle in the ovary into oviduct Ovulation

53 Menstrual Cycle 4. Luteal Phase (Day 15-28)
LH causes corpus luteum to develop from follicle  corpus luteum secretes E&P Endometrium thickens and is maintained (progesteroneprevents contractions) Inhibits GnRH, LH & FSH (negative-feedback) Luteal Phase

54 Menstrual Cycle: ~28 days
1. 3. Label the hormones: FELP LH 2. 4.

55 Menstrual Cycle Animations
1)http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/obj ects/1115/ /36_1_7a_plain.html 2)http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/obj ects/1115/ /36_2_1a_plain.html

56 Hormone Review 1. FSH 2. Estrogen Target: follicles in the ovary
Effect: Egg and estrogen 2. Estrogen Target: various cells, endometrium, hypothalamus Effect: development of 1o (reproductive organs) and 2o sexual characteristics (higher voice, larger hips); neg. feedback to decrease FSH; positive feedback to increase LH production; growth of endometrium (+) LH (-) (-) (-)

57 Hormone Review 3. LH 4. Progesterone
Target: follicle (ovulation) corpus luteum Effect: ovulation and progesterone and estrogen production 4. Progesterone Target: endometrium and hypothalamus Effect: thicken and maintain endometrium (inhibit contractions); negative feedback to stop FSH and LH (+) LH (-) (-) (-)

58 Ovary LH from pituitary 4 3 1 2 Estrogen Corpus luteum Ovum Ovulation
Progesterone and estrogen 3 LH from pituitary Ovum Corpus luteum Ovulation 1 FSH From Pituitary n 2n Follicles 2 Estrogen

59 Hormones Controlling X = _______ W = ______ Z = _______ Y = _______
Menstruation X = _______ FSH W = ______ Estrogen Z = _______ LH Y = _______ Progesterone

60 Degernating corpus luteum

61 Low estrogen and progesterone.
1. The loss of the endometrium (a monthly occurrence during the reproductive phase of a female’s life) is termed ___________ and occurs over approximately ____ days. menstruation 4-5 2. The endometrium is shed on a monthly basis but the immediate reason is because of : Low estrogen and progesterone.

62 Progesterone & estrogen drop 3 times stimulating 3 menstruations

63 The numbered blocks represent hormones
The numbered blocks represent hormones. Which hormone corresponds to each number? ______ Progesterone Estrogen FSH LH 4 3 2 1

64 Which color represents which hormones?
Progesterone Blood Concentration of Menstrual Hormones Estrogen LH FSH

65 Answer the questions in your workbook using the following picture
follicular Which phase is dominated by estrogen?______________ Which phase is dominated by progesterone? _____________ The sharp rise in temperature signals what event?______________ luteal ovulation

66 Draw the ovary and label it

67 Menstrual Cycle: If pregnancy does not occur
Estrogen and Progesterone levels drop Endometrium lining is shed Bleeding occurs - menstruation

68 For the first 3 months stimulated by hCG
1. Predict, with a sketch, what each diagram/graph should look like if a woman were to become pregnant at around day 21. Day 45 For the first 3 months stimulated by hCG Estrogen and Prog. cause growth of the endometrium Progesterone prevents contractions Endometrium forms part of placenta

69 Menopause Occurs at around ~50 Ova are no longer produced
This changes hormone production as well Symptoms: hot flashes, high cholesterol and decreasing bone mass Hormone replacement therapy – women are given low doses of estrogen (some progesterone) But this has many side effects. Hot flashes – blood vessels dilate and constrict quickly Complete the Menstrual Cycle Assignment

70 Meiosis in Males and Females
Males - Spermatogenesis Location : testes Females - Oogenesis Location: ovaries Follicle 2N Follicle 2N Meiosis 1 Meiosis 1 N N N N Meiosis 2 Meiosis 2 N N N N N N N N 1 egg and 3 polar bodies Egg (ovum) gets most of the cytoplasm. Polar bodies die and are absorbed by body. 4 equal sperm

71 150 – 300 million sperm travel though the cervix to the uterus.
100 – 500 sperm reach the oviducts Recall - egg has large cytoplasm, sperm very little cytoplasm. The cytoplasm of the egg has to nourish the zygote for approximately ________ 5 days

72 In the Fallopian Tube Meiosis II 2n fertilization n n


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