Presentation on theme: "Language of Anatomy Anatomists have a set of reference terms that are universally understood. Allows body structures to be located & identified with minimum."— Presentation transcript:
1 Language of AnatomyAnatomists have a set of reference terms that are universally understood.Allows body structures to be located & identified with minimum words and great clarity.
2 Anotomical PositionAnatomists/doctors use a universally accepted position, the anatomical position when referring to the body.standing erect, facing forward, arms down at the side, with the palms turned forward
3 Surface Anatomy (External Landmarks) Body surfaces have many visible landmarks. (35 from lab)Anterior (front) landmarksPosterior (back) landmarksTwo divisionAxial – head, neck and trunkAppendicular – limbs and attachment to axis
4 Body Orientation & Direction (Terms have different meaning for quadrupeds and bipeds) Superior/InferiorAbove/belowEx: Standing on your head, your head is _______ to your neck.InferiorAnterior/PosteriorFront/backEx: Your chest is _________ to your shoulder blades.Anterior
5 Body Orientation & Direction Medial/LateralToward midline/away from midlineEx: The cheeks are ________ to the tongue.LateralDorsal/VentralBackside/belly sideEx: Your naval is on the _________ side of the body.Ventral
6 Body Orientation & Direction Superficial (external)/Deep (internal)Toward or at the body surface/away from the body surfaceEx: The skin is ____________ to the skeletal muscles.SuperficialCephalad (cranial)/CaudalToward head/toward the tail or feetHumans: interchangeable with superior and inferiorQuadrupeds: interchangeable with anterior and posterior
7 Body Orientation & Direction Proximal/DistalNearer the trunk or attached end/farther from the trunk or point of attachment, can also be used to indicate regions (closer to or farther from the head) of internal tubular organs.Ex: The knee is ________ to the toes.ProximalEx: The small intestines is ________ to the large intestines.
9 Body Planes & SectionsTo make observations of internal structures during dissection, it is necessary to make sections or cuts.Sections/cuts are made through the body wall or through an organ along an imaginary surface or line called a plane.
10 Body Planes & Sections Sagittal (longitudinal) plane divides a body or organ vertically into right and left parts.Median/midsagittal planeThe right and left parts are equalParasagittal PlaneThe right and left parts areunequal
11 Body Planes & Sections Frontal (coronal) plane divides the body or organ vertically into front (anterior) and rear (posterior) parts.
12 Body Planes & Sections Transverse (cross section) plane divides the body or organ horizontally into top (superior) and bottom (inferior) parts.
14 Biped vs. Quadruped Directional Language of Anatomy and Planes Label the following diagrams of a biped and quadruped with the following terms.cranial, caudal, dorsal, ventral, anterior, posterior, superior, inferiorWhat are caudal and cephalad interchangable with in a biped vs. a quadruped?What parts are the biped and quadruped divided into for a coronal, transverse and sagittal plane?
17 Quadruped Planes & Sections (Different From Bipeds) At the left, from top to bottom, observe a sagittal section, a transverse section, and a dorsal plane section through a dog head.A sagittal section divides the cadaver into right & left parts. A transverse section divides the cadaver into cranial & caudal parts. A dorsal plane (frontal plane) section is cut parallel to the back, dividing the cadaver into top (dorsal) & bottom (ventral) parts.
20 Body Cavities Axial portion of body Dorsal Body Cavity two large cavities, protects organs.Dorsal Body CavityCranial cavity – brainVertebral (spinal) cavity – spinal cordVentral Body CavityThoracic cavity (superior the diaphragm) – heart, lungsAbdominopelvic cavity (inferior the diaphragm) –Abdominal cavity - stomach, intestines, liverPelvic cavity - reproductive organs, bladder, rectum