Presentation on theme: "Language of Anatomy Anatomists have a set of reference terms that are universally understood. Allows body structures to be located & identified with minimum."— Presentation transcript:
1Language of AnatomyAnatomists have a set of reference terms that are universally understood.Allows body structures to be located & identified with minimum words and great clarity.
2Anotomical PositionAnatomists/doctors use a universally accepted position, the anatomical position when referring to the body.standing erect, facing forward, arms down at the side, with the palms turned forward
3Surface Anatomy (External Landmarks) Body surfaces have many visible landmarks. (35 from lab)Anterior (front) landmarksPosterior (back) landmarksTwo divisionAxial – head, neck and trunkAppendicular – limbs and attachment to axis
4Body Orientation & Direction (Terms have different meaning for quadrupeds and bipeds) Superior/InferiorAbove/belowEx: Standing on your head, your head is _______ to your neck.InferiorAnterior/PosteriorFront/backEx: Your chest is _________ to your shoulder blades.Anterior
5Body Orientation & Direction Medial/LateralToward midline/away from midlineEx: The cheeks are ________ to the tongue.LateralDorsal/VentralBackside/belly sideEx: Your naval is on the _________ side of the body.Ventral
6Body Orientation & Direction Superficial (external)/Deep (internal)Toward or at the body surface/away from the body surfaceEx: The skin is ____________ to the skeletal muscles.SuperficialCephalad (cranial)/CaudalToward head/toward the tail or feetHumans: interchangeable with superior and inferiorQuadrupeds: interchangeable with anterior and posterior
7Body Orientation & Direction Proximal/DistalNearer the trunk or attached end/farther from the trunk or point of attachment, can also be used to indicate regions (closer to or farther from the head) of internal tubular organs.Ex: The knee is ________ to the toes.ProximalEx: The small intestines is ________ to the large intestines.
9Body Planes & SectionsTo make observations of internal structures during dissection, it is necessary to make sections or cuts.Sections/cuts are made through the body wall or through an organ along an imaginary surface or line called a plane.
10Body Planes & Sections Sagittal (longitudinal) plane divides a body or organ vertically into right and left parts.Median/midsagittal planeThe right and left parts are equalParasagittal PlaneThe right and left parts areunequal
11Body Planes & Sections Frontal (coronal) plane divides the body or organ vertically into front (anterior) and rear (posterior) parts.
12Body Planes & Sections Transverse (cross section) plane divides the body or organ horizontally into top (superior) and bottom (inferior) parts.
14Biped vs. Quadruped Directional Language of Anatomy and Planes Label the following diagrams of a biped and quadruped with the following terms.cranial, caudal, dorsal, ventral, anterior, posterior, superior, inferiorWhat are caudal and cephalad interchangable with in a biped vs. a quadruped?What parts are the biped and quadruped divided into for a coronal, transverse and sagittal plane?
17Quadruped Planes & Sections (Different From Bipeds) At the left, from top to bottom, observe a sagittal section, a transverse section, and a dorsal plane section through a dog head.A sagittal section divides the cadaver into right & left parts. A transverse section divides the cadaver into cranial & caudal parts. A dorsal plane (frontal plane) section is cut parallel to the back, dividing the cadaver into top (dorsal) & bottom (ventral) parts.