Presentation on theme: " Anatomists have a set of reference terms that are universally understood. Allows body structures to be located & identified with minimum words and."— Presentation transcript:
Anatomists have a set of reference terms that are universally understood. Allows body structures to be located & identified with minimum words and great clarity.
Anatomists/doctors use a universally accepted position, the anatomical position when referring to the body. standing erect, facing forward, arms down at the side, with the palms turned forward
Body surfaces have many visible landmarks. (35 from lab) Anterior (front) landmarks Posterior (back) landmarks Two division Axial – head, neck and trunk Appendicular – limbs and attachment to axis
Superior/Inferior Above/below Ex: Standing on your head, your head is _______ to your neck. Inferior Anterior/Posterior Front/back Ex: Your chest is _________ to your shoulder blades. Anterior
Medial/Lateral Toward midline/away from midline Ex: The cheeks are ________ to the tongue. Lateral Dorsal/Ventral Backside/belly side Ex: Your naval is on the _________ side of the body. Ventral
Superficial (external)/Deep (internal) Toward or at the body surface/away from the body surface Ex: The skin is ____________ to the skeletal muscles. Superficial Cephalad (cranial)/Caudal Toward head/toward the tail or feet Humans: interchangeable with superior and inferior Quadrupeds: interchangeable with anterior and posterior
Proximal/Distal Nearer the trunk or attached end/farther from the trunk or point of attachment, can also be used to indicate regions (closer to or farther from the head) of internal tubular organs. Ex: The knee is ________ to the toes. Proximal Ex: The small intestines is ________ to the large intestines.
caudal Cephalad (cranial)
To make observations of internal structures during dissection, it is necessary to make sections or cuts. Sections/cuts are made through the body wall or through an organ along an imaginary surface or line called a plane.
Sagittal (longitudinal) plane divides a body or organ vertically into right and left parts. Median/midsagittal plane The right and left parts are equal Parasagittal Plane The right and left parts are unequal
Frontal (coronal) plane divides the body or organ vertically into front (anterior) and rear (posterior) parts.
Transverse (cross section) plane divides the body or organ horizontally into top (superior) and bottom (inferior) parts.
Label the following diagrams of a biped and quadruped with the following terms. cranial, caudal, dorsal, ventral, anterior, posterior, superior, inferior What are caudal and cephalad interchangable with in a biped vs. a quadruped? What parts are the biped and quadruped divided into for a coronal, transverse and sagittal plane?
caudal Cephalad (cranial)
At the left, from top to bottom, observe a sagittal section, a transverse section, and a dorsal plane section through a dog head. A sagittal section divides the cadaver into right & left parts. A transverse section divides the cadaver into cranial & caudal parts. A dorsal plane ( frontal plane ) section is cut parallel to the back, dividing the cadaver into top (dorsal) & bottom (ventral) parts.
Axial portion of body two large cavities, protects organs. Dorsal Body Cavity Cranial cavity – brain Vertebral (spinal) cavity – spinal cord Ventral Body Cavity Thoracic cavity (superior the diaphragm) – heart, lungs Abdominopelvic cavity (inferior the diaphragm) – Abdominal cavity - stomach, intestines, liver Pelvic cavity - reproductive organs, bladder, rectum
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