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 Anatomists have a set of reference terms that are universally understood.  Allows body structures to be located & identified with minimum words and.

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Presentation on theme: " Anatomists have a set of reference terms that are universally understood.  Allows body structures to be located & identified with minimum words and."— Presentation transcript:

1  Anatomists have a set of reference terms that are universally understood.  Allows body structures to be located & identified with minimum words and great clarity.

2  Anatomists/doctors use a universally accepted position, the anatomical position when referring to the body.  standing erect, facing forward, arms down at the side, with the palms turned forward

3  Body surfaces have many visible landmarks. (35 from lab)  Anterior (front) landmarks  Posterior (back) landmarks  Two division  Axial – head, neck and trunk  Appendicular – limbs and attachment to axis

4  Superior/Inferior  Above/below  Ex: Standing on your head, your head is _______ to your neck.  Inferior  Anterior/Posterior  Front/back  Ex: Your chest is _________ to your shoulder blades.  Anterior

5  Medial/Lateral  Toward midline/away from midline  Ex: The cheeks are ________ to the tongue.  Lateral  Dorsal/Ventral  Backside/belly side  Ex: Your naval is on the _________ side of the body.  Ventral

6  Superficial (external)/Deep (internal)  Toward or at the body surface/away from the body surface  Ex: The skin is ____________ to the skeletal muscles.  Superficial  Cephalad (cranial)/Caudal  Toward head/toward the tail or feet  Humans: interchangeable with superior and inferior  Quadrupeds: interchangeable with anterior and posterior

7  Proximal/Distal  Nearer the trunk or attached end/farther from the trunk or point of attachment, can also be used to indicate regions (closer to or farther from the head) of internal tubular organs.  Ex: The knee is ________ to the toes.  Proximal  Ex: The small intestines is ________ to the large intestines.

8 caudal Cephalad (cranial)

9  To make observations of internal structures during dissection, it is necessary to make sections or cuts.  Sections/cuts are made through the body wall or through an organ along an imaginary surface or line called a plane.

10  Sagittal (longitudinal) plane  divides a body or organ vertically into right and left parts.  Median/midsagittal plane  The right and left parts are equal  Parasagittal Plane  The right and left parts are unequal

11  Frontal (coronal) plane  divides the body or organ vertically into front (anterior) and rear (posterior) parts.

12  Transverse (cross section) plane  divides the body or organ horizontally into top (superior) and bottom (inferior) parts.

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14  Label the following diagrams of a biped and quadruped with the following terms.  cranial, caudal, dorsal, ventral, anterior, posterior, superior, inferior  What are caudal and cephalad interchangable with in a biped vs. a quadruped?  What parts are the biped and quadruped divided into for a coronal, transverse and sagittal plane?

15 caudal Cephalad (cranial)

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17 At the left, from top to bottom, observe a sagittal section, a transverse section, and a dorsal plane section through a dog head. A sagittal section divides the cadaver into right & left parts. A transverse section divides the cadaver into cranial & caudal parts. A dorsal plane ( frontal plane ) section is cut parallel to the back, dividing the cadaver into top (dorsal) & bottom (ventral) parts.

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20  Axial portion of body  two large cavities, protects organs.  Dorsal Body Cavity  Cranial cavity – brain  Vertebral (spinal) cavity – spinal cord  Ventral Body Cavity  Thoracic cavity (superior the diaphragm) – heart, lungs  Abdominopelvic cavity (inferior the diaphragm) –  Abdominal cavity - stomach, intestines, liver  Pelvic cavity - reproductive organs, bladder, rectum

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24  Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual  at-Is-Anatomy-and-Physiology-.topicArticleId ,articleId html at-Is-Anatomy-and-Physiology-.topicArticleId ,articleId html 


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