2 The Constitution The Electoral College In what way was the Electoral College a compromise?-Question Ch.9 Study Guide, II.4-large states would have greater influence in the first round of popular voting as a state’s share of electors was based on the total number of its senators and representatives in Congress. If no candidate got a majority of votes, the small states would gain more say when the election went to the House with each state having one vote.
3 How was slavery addressed in the Constitution? -in apportioning direct taxes and in according representation in the House of Representatives, slaves would count as three-fifths of a person (three-fifths compromise).the slave trade could not be touched until 1807 (at that time, Congress banned it).
5 In what ways did the Constitution seek to erect barriers against “mobocracy?” federal judges were appointed for lifethe president was to be indirectly elected by the Electoral Collegesenators were to be chosen indirectly by state legislatures
6 What democratic elements existed in the Constitution? it was based on two main principles of republicanism- government was based on the consent of the governed and the powers of government should be limitedthe virtue of the people, not the authority of the state, was to be the ultimate guarantor of liberty, justice, and order: “We the people”
8 Map 9.4 The Struggle overRatification This mottled mapshows that federalist supporttended to cluster around thecoastal areas, which had enjoyedprofitable commerce with theoutside world, including theexport of grain and tobacco.Impoverished frontiersmen,suspicious of a powerful newcentral government under theConstitution, were generallyantifederalists.Map 9-4 p174
9 Federalists Generally lived along the seaboard Generally wealthier, more educated, and better organized than the Anti-Federalists.
10 Anti-Federalists Sam Adams, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee Generally states’ rights proponents, backcountry people, small farmersGenerally the poorest classes
11 Anti-Federalist Arguments the Constitution was written by aristocratic elements of society and was undemocraticsovereignty of the states were being submergedfreedoms of the individual were jeopardized by the lack of a bill of rightsloss of annual elections for congressional representatives, the creation of a federal stronghold (later D.C.), the creation of a standing army, the omission of any reference to God, and the procedure of ratification with only two-thirds of the states.
12 The promise to add a bill of rights swayed some Anti-Federalists
13 June 1788 the Constitution was officially adopted
15 A Triumphant CartoonThis cartoon appeared in theMassachusetts Centinel onAugust 2, Note the twolaggards, especially the sorrycondition of Rhode Island.p176
16 What do the authors mean when they say, “The minority had triumphed- twice”? -a militant minority of American radicals and engineered the military Revolution. Now a minority of conservatives (embracing some of the earlier radicals) had engineered a peaceful revolution that overthrew the Articles of Confederation.
17 What do the authors mean by “Conservatism was victorious?” -Conservatives conserved the principle of republican government through a redefinition of popular sovereignty.-safeguards were erected against mob excesses
18 Can the Constitution be considered both a radical departure from the Articles of Confederation and a conservative document at the same time?