Trust lacking a human beneficiary or charitable purpose. Care for pet Say masses Erect monuments
Traditional approach = invalid Not private as no human beneficiary Not charitable as lacking charitable purpose
Modern trend Pets = 45 states plus D.C. recognize statutory pet trusts ▪ Trust Code § Other purposes = allowed under UPC and UTC ▪ No equivalent provision in Trust Code.
No equitable title but benefits from the trust nonetheless. Typically, unable to enforce trust. Perhaps fit as “interested person” under “affected by” language of § (7).
Cannot exert dominion, control, or accept benefits. May “cherry pick” (partial disclaimers allowed). Irrevocable and unconditional
Formalities: In writing. Acknowledged (notarized). Delivered to trustee not later than 9 months after the later of: ▪ Date of trust creation ▪ Beneficiary reaching age 21 ▪ If future interest, date it indefeasible vests
Passage of property Under specific terms of trust (“If A disclaims, then the property passes to X.”) Under terms of trust as if beneficiary predeceased trust creation.
[same as we learned for disclaiming as a beneficiary of a will]
Issue arises if beneficiary is married. Assume trust is not created by one or both spouses.
Principal distributions Beneficiary’s separate property (gift)
Undistributed trust income Not yet able to classify until beneficiary has a right to demand distribution.
Discretionary income distributions Separate.
Mandatory income distributions Commentators disagree and case law not definitive.
When statute applies: Divorce on or after September 1, Trust is written. Trust is revocable. Settlor named his/her spouse (or other ex- relative) as beneficiary or trustee. Trust is silent as to impact of divorce.
Statutory revocation of the following provisions: Ex-spouse as beneficiary. Ex-spouse as trustee. Other ex-relatives as beneficiary. Other ex-relatives as trustee.
Effect Property passes as if ex-spouse or ex-relative disclaimed. Fiduciary designations interpreted as if ex- spouse or ex-relative died before marriage terminated.
Presumption = able to transfer: Inter vivos (by gift or sale) At death (via intestacy or by will)
Restrictions: Life Interest – Beneficiary only received a life interest. Spendthrift provision – Beneficiary prohibited from transferring.
Priority of Assignments Note 1, page 86 English view = notice necessary to complete the assignment as against a subsequent assignee American view = first assignee prevails