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Seedless Vascular Plants Ferns & Lycophytes Chapter 23.

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Presentation on theme: "Seedless Vascular Plants Ferns & Lycophytes Chapter 23."— Presentation transcript:

1 Seedless Vascular Plants Ferns & Lycophytes Chapter 23

2 Seedless Vascular Plants 2 Groups Ferns – Whisk Ferns – Horsetails – Ferns Lycophytes – Club Mosses – Spike Mosses – Quillworts

3 Evolution from Bryophytes to Seedless Vascular Plants Development of Vascular Tissue – Xylem – conducts water and dissolved minerals – Phloem – conducts dissolved sugar Vascular tissue allows for taller plants Dominant sporophyte generation Reproduction still depends on water to transport sperm Evolution of True Leaves

4 2 Types of True Leaves Microphylls – Type of leaf found in lycophytes – Contains one vascular strand Megaphylls – Type of leaf found in ferns, horsetails, and seed plants – Contains multiple vascular strands (branched) – Probably evolved from the webbing of side branches

5 Evolution of True Leaves

6 Ferns Phylum Pteridophyta – Remember: “I’m Terrified of Ferns” – Seedless - Reproduce by spores produced in sporangia – Spores are homosporous Give rise to bisexual gametophytes – Vascular – Undergo alternation of generations Dominant Sporophyte Generation Gametophyte generation (prothallus) – Includes ferns, whisk ferns, and horsetails

7 Ferns An ancient group of plants Very diverse group

8 Parts of a Fern Rhizome – horizontal underground stem Frond- megaphyll leaf Fiddlehead – young, tightly coiled frond Sporangia – spore cases Sori – clusters of sporangia on bottom side of frond

9 Fiddleheads

10 Sori

11 Fern Life Cycle

12 Prothallus – Fern Gametophyte

13 Whisk Ferns Exhibit Dichotomous branching Genera: Psilophyta

14 Horsetails Have hollow, jointed stems Stems contain silica Wet, marshy habitats Genera: Equisetophyta

15 Lycophytes Phylum Lycopodiophyta – Remember: “I Like-o-Fight with Clubs & Spikes, & go for the Quill” – Seedless – Reproduce by spores Spores can be heterosporous – 2 types of n spores – » megaspores (form a female gametophyte) » microspores (form a male gametophyte) – Vascular – Dominant Sporophyte generation – Includes Club Mosses, Spike Mosses, & Quillworts

16 3 Groups of Lycophytes 1. Club Moss – True roots – Rhizomes & erect or trailing aerial stems – Small, scale-like microphyll leaves

17 3 Groups of Lycophytes 2. Spike Moss – Long, creeping rhizomes Typically branch dichotomously – Roots branch dichotomously – Overlapping, scale-like microphylls Resurrection Plant

18 3 Groups of Lycophytes 3. Quillwort – Underground corm A short, swollen underground stem – Cylindrical, quill-like microphyll leafs – Roots

19 Ecological & Economic Impacts Ferns & Lycophytes – Help form soil – Prevent soil erosion Branching underground rhizomes and roots or rhizoids hold soil in place – Coal deposits Formed by remains of ancient ferns Powered Industrial Revolution of 19 th Century Used today to produce electricity

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