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Seedless Vascular Plants Ferns & Lycophytes

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Presentation on theme: "Seedless Vascular Plants Ferns & Lycophytes"— Presentation transcript:

1 Seedless Vascular Plants Ferns & Lycophytes
Chapter 23

2 Seedless Vascular Plants
2 Groups Ferns Whisk Ferns Horsetails Lycophytes Club Mosses Spike Mosses Quillworts

3 Evolution from Bryophytes to Seedless Vascular Plants
Development of Vascular Tissue Xylem – conducts water and dissolved minerals Phloem – conducts dissolved sugar Vascular tissue allows for taller plants Dominant sporophyte generation Reproduction still depends on water to transport sperm Evolution of True Leaves

4 Evolution of True Leaves
2 Types of True Leaves Microphylls Type of leaf found in lycophytes Contains one vascular strand Megaphylls Type of leaf found in ferns, horsetails, and seed plants Contains multiple vascular strands (branched) Probably evolved from the webbing of side branches

5 Evolution of True Leaves

6 Ferns Phylum Pteridophyta Remember: “I’m Terrified of Ferns”
Seedless - Reproduce by spores produced in sporangia Spores are homosporous Give rise to bisexual gametophytes Vascular Undergo alternation of generations Dominant Sporophyte Generation Gametophyte generation (prothallus) Includes ferns, whisk ferns, and horsetails

7 Ferns An ancient group of plants Very diverse group

8 Parts of a Fern Rhizome – horizontal underground stem
Frond- megaphyll leaf Fiddlehead – young, tightly coiled frond Sporangia – spore cases Sori – clusters of sporangia on bottom side of frond 6th hr left off here!

9 Fiddleheads

10 Sori

11 Fern Life Cycle

12 Prothallus – Fern Gametophyte

13 Whisk Ferns Exhibit Dichotomous branching Genera: Psilophyta

14 Horsetails Have hollow, jointed stems Stems contain silica
Wet, marshy habitats Genera: Equisetophyta 2nd Hour Left off Here!

15 Lycophytes Phylum Lycopodiophyta
Remember: “I Like-o-Fight with Clubs & Spikes, & go for the Quill” Seedless – Reproduce by spores Spores can be heterosporous 2 types of n spores – megaspores (form a female gametophyte) microspores (form a male gametophyte) Vascular Dominant Sporophyte generation Includes Club Mosses, Spike Mosses, & Quillworts 6th Hour left off here

16 3 Groups of Lycophytes Club Moss True roots
Rhizomes & erect or trailing aerial stems Small, scale-like microphyll leaves 1st Hour 1st Hour Left off Here

17 3 Groups of Lycophytes 2. Spike Moss Long, creeping rhizomes
Typically branch dichotomously Roots branch dichotomously Overlapping, scale-like microphylls 2nd Hour Left off here! Resurrection Plant

18 3 Groups of Lycophytes 3. Quillwort Underground corm
A short, swollen underground stem Cylindrical, quill-like microphyll leafs Roots

19 Ecological & Economic Impacts
Ferns & Lycophytes Help form soil Prevent soil erosion Branching underground rhizomes and roots or rhizoids hold soil in place Coal deposits Formed by remains of ancient ferns Powered Industrial Revolution of 19th Century Used today to produce electricity

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