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The rate of electron transport in mitochondria is frequently measured by the disappearance of oxygen in a solution. Justify why this is a good method.

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Presentation on theme: "The rate of electron transport in mitochondria is frequently measured by the disappearance of oxygen in a solution. Justify why this is a good method."— Presentation transcript:

1 The rate of electron transport in mitochondria is frequently measured by the disappearance of oxygen in a solution. Justify why this is a good method. Why is it not possible to use ATP for long-term energy storage? If ATP cannot be used for this purpose, how can cells store energy long-term? Yeast can withstand the lack of oxygen for an extended period of time. What type of organism is yeast? How does it obtain sufficient ATP under these conditions?

2 What is the overall function of glycolysis?
Describe the role of each of the following in cellular respiration: Hydrogen ions NAD and FAD Oxygen Acetyl Co A ATP ATP synthase In the following redox reaction, which compound is oxidized, which one is reduced? C4H6O5 + NAD+ C4H4O5 + NADH + H+

3 Name and describe the two ways in which ATP is made in cellular respiration. During what stages in the process does each type occur? A scientist was testing the effect of T4 hormone on oxygen consumption. He used 3 types of mice, one with low T4 levels, one with normal T4 levels and one with elevated T4 levels. Predict and justify the oxygen consumption in each type of mouse.

4 A fungal infection attacks the root system of a giant sequoia tree and causes root shrinkage. How might root shrinkage affect the tree? What is the role of root hairs? How do their structure help them to perform their function? Name two plant functions that are not performed by root hair cells. Would you expect a plant inhabiting a region with abundant rainfall to have many or few root hairs? Why?

5 Why do gardeners regularly prune shrubs to make them bushier?
Leaves primarily in the shade tend to be larger than leaves that are in the sun. Why is that? Explain. Name three characteristics of plants that make them more tolerant to draught. Describe how these characteristics help. Name three characteristics of plants to be more tolerant to living in water. Describe how these characteristics help.

6 List the three types of plant tissues and describe their basic characteristics.
Distinguish between the cell types of the xylem and phloem. How does each cell type fit to perform their function? Why is it beneficial to have dead cells transport water but living cells transport organic nutrients? What is the purpose of the companion cells in phloem tissue? Point out the location of transport tissues in plants.

7 A gardener leaves carrots in the ground for two years, thinking their roots will grow larger during the second year since they are biennials. Is this a good idea? Explain. How would the reduction of aquaporins affect a plant cell’s ability to adjust to new osmotic conditions? Describe the role of symplast in transporting polar substances. How effective would the symplast be at transporting highly nonpolar substances?

8 Some plants can detect increased levels of light reflected from leaves of encroaching neighbors. This detection elicits stem elongation, production of erect leaves, and less branching. How do these responses help the plant compete? Suppose a mutant Arabiopsis mutant lacking functional aquaporin proteins has a root mass three times greater than that of wild-type plants. Suggest an explanation. Explain why the evaporation of water from leaves lowers their temperature.

9 Why can xylem transport water and minerals using dead cells, whereas phloem requires living cells?
Explain how stomata open. Why would you see the stomata on the top of the leaves in hydrophytes but on the bottom on most dry land plants? Differentiate between the regulation of the flowering of short-day plants and long-day plants.

10 A Minnesota gardener notes that the plants immediately bordering a walkway are stunted. Suspecting that the soil near the walkway may be contaminated from salt added to the walkway during the winter, he tests the soil. The soil next to the walkway contains 50mM more NaCl than the soil elsewhere. Calculate the solute potential of the soil along the walkway on 20°C. Compare this value to the solute potential elsewhere if the concentration of salt away from the walkway is 0.01 M. Explain how the change in water potential effects the movement of water into the plants.

11 Describe the following processes:
Water intake by root hairs Water transport into the xylem in plants Long-distance water and nutrient transport in plants Long-distance organic matter transport in plants Opening and closing the stomata Phytochrome function and plant responses to light Photoperiodism and plant flowering

12 In what sense are nutrients from a recently ingested meal not really “inside” your body prior to the absorption stage of food processing? What features of a mammal’s digestive system make it an attractive habitat for mutualistic microorganisms? What are the advantages of a longer alimentary canal for processing plant food? Why would a parasite living in the intestine of a mammal have a greatly reduced digestive system and very thin skin with rich blood supply?

13 For someone with a sedentary lifestyle, how does the body deal with an excess energy intake?
Explain an example when the surface area to volume ratio is significant in determining the metabolic rate. Explain how age influence the metabolic rate. Through one specific example, explain how the digestive system uses the structure and function relationship.

14 Name the main functions of the circulatory system
Name the main functions of the circulatory system. Explain how some of these functions relate to cellular respiration. How does an open circulatory system differ from a closed circulatory system? Through one specific example explain how evolution changed the circulatory system of animals. If an organism is endothermic, what specific adaptations of the anatomy and physiology of the organism support the temperature regulation. Explain why the affinity of hemoglobin to oxygen changes and how it changes.

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