Presentation on theme: "Native and Easy-to-Grow Fruit Nov. 4, 2012 Jon"— Presentation transcript:
Native and Easy-to-Grow Fruit Nov. 4, 2012 Jon Traunfeldjont@umd.edu
How do fruit plants compare to tomato plants? Perennials that require 12-month attention Require “hardening” (chilling hours) to survive winter and produce fruit Maximum yields come with the correct balance of root, leaf, and fruit growth Important to know when and where they produce flower buds and fruit Correct pruning is essential to control and direct growth and encourage fruiting
Plan ahead Do I have enough room? Enough time? What’s practical for me? Start planning one year before planting Select a full-sun, well-drained site Amend soil to achieve correct pH and high organic matter content Work with your macro- and micro-climates
Picking cultivars Select well-adapted, recommended cultivars with good disease resistance. Buy high quality plants- “certified” free of pests and diseases Bareroot plants will catch up to container plants Do I need a special rootstock? Do I need more than one cultivar for pollination?
What if my plants arrive too early? Keep roots moist and keep plants cool “Heel in” plants outdoors OR Keep plants in garage or refrigerator
Hydrating an apple whip in a bucket of water for 12 hours prior to planting 3-year old bare-root apple whip has just arrived from the nursery. Notice graft union where the scion is joined to the rootstock.
After planting…establishment Regular watering throughout the year is essential; shallow-root small fruit plants are especially vulnerable to drought stress Be careful not to over-fertilize Avoid herbicides Keep mulch away from trunks and crowns
Strawberry Two main types for Maryland gardeners: the “June-bearing” type (predominate) and “day-neutral” type. Aggregate fruits have many stamens and pistils. King berry is largest in a cluster and has the most seeds.
Pineberry (pineapple strawberry) - white strawberry with red seeds; has some pineapple flavor. Small berries, low yield = not worth it!
Blackberry Perennial crown; biennial canes Very well adapted to all parts of Maryland Four types: – Thorny erect (excellent flavor) – Thornless trailing (rampant growers; large fruit) – Thornless erect (good choice for small spaces) – Primocane-bearing, thorny erect
‘Prime-Jim’ thorny erect blackberry that bears on first-year canes in late summer-frost.
Raspberry Perennial crown; biennial canes Less heat-tolerant than blackberry, but ok for all parts of MD Types: – Red, purple, black; June bearing – Red, yellow; primo-cane or “fall-bearing”. These can be cut 6-8 inches above ground-level in late winter or early spring.
Black raspberry- new shoots (primocanes) are thinned to 6 inches apart. Purple raspberry (cross between black and red raspberry); plant tied to a single wire between posts.
Tip rooting New raspberry plant from tip rooting Landscape fabric laid down to suppress weeds and raspberry suckers
Seedless table grape cultivars ‘Mars’ ‘Canadice’ ‘ Himrod’
Underused small fruits Elderberry- Sambucus Ribes spp.- Currant- red, black and white Gooseberry- American, European and crosses Jostaberry
Black chokeberry- Photinia melanocarpa
Beach plum- Prunus maritima Native to U.S. Atlantic Coast
Wineberry- very invasive! Rubus phoenicolasius- China native that displaces native plants Spreads by seed, suckers and tip rooting Delicious fruit- but Do Not dig up and transplant into your landscape
Some keys to apple success : – Dwarfing rootstock- BUD 9, EMLA 9, EMLA 26 – Disease-resistant cultivars (scions); e.g. ‘Liberty’, ‘Goldrush’, ‘Enterprise’ – Support with stakes and wire (vertical and oblique cordons work well) – Close attention to pruning, pest monitoring – Don’t over-fertilize
‘Olympic’ Asian pear- good alternative to apple and European pear but can have insect pest and disease problems.
Peach Peach is best pruned to an open vase shape to maximize captured sunlight and fruit production. Peach fruits need to be hand-thinned to increase fruit size and decrease disease problems.
“Portable” fig in ½ whiskey barrel is moved into garage for winter rest. Protected Baltimore City fig (tree form) with Southern exposure.
Shrub form with multiple fig stems pulled to center, tied and covered for winter protection. Same plant during growing season.
Root containment and root pruning will promote fruiting. Bird netting surrounds entire fig plant. Most birds will peck through netting and some may get tangled.
Have questions? – Call or e-mail the Home and Garden Information Center- 1.800.342.2507; www.hgic.umd.edwww.hgic.umd.ed – Consult UME Fruit Resources PLANT FRUIT!!GROW FRUIT!!