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Health Assessment Review

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1 Health Assessment Review

2 What is health assessment?
Concerned with health promotion and disease prevention Used to make a judgment or diagnosis about the health of an individual A guide for data collection and health evaluation

3 Medical diagnosis vs. Nursing diagnosis
Medical diagnosis concerned with the etiology of disease Nursing diagnosis concerned with the impact of the health problem on the whole person and with the individual’s response to the problem Nurses constantly observe and collect data: all part of assessment

4 Interviewing An assessment tool is used to collect data to assist in formulating a diagnosis Assess culture: a set of values, beliefs and traditions that are passed down Language barriers can sometimes create communication problems, nurses need to be aware of this and be creative in interviewing

5 Interview Essential to ensure privacy
Make the environment conducive to an interview Listen to the client and/or family and allow adequate time for answering questions Always introduce yourself, including status and why you are there Take special care with the patient with visual & hearing impairments or who does not speak english

6 Collecting information
Use open ended and closed ended questions to obtain data Open ended asks the client for narrative or a chance to provide their story Closed questions solicit yes or no answers and can be useful for clarification There are many responses the nurse can make that will encourage or discourage conversation Always remember to conclude the interview

7 Nonverbal skills Messages that are productive and enhance the relationship Defeating and non-productive: inattentiveness, authority, superiority, rolling eyes, behaviors that demonstrate a lack of respect

8 History: Adult Chief complaint/ characteristics Biographical data
Source of history Reason for seeking care History of present illness Past history: can include surgeries, childhood illnesses Family history Review of systems

9 Integumentary Skin is an indicator of health status
Assessed by inspection and palpation structures assessed are: the skin, hair, nails and scalp Always assess the subjective data first, usually a series of questions aimed at getting the client’s perspective

10 Inspection Inspect for colour, vascularity, lesions and body odours
Inspect for obvious deviations from normal Abnormals: blue, red, yellow Document colour, type, location of lesions

11 Palpation Temperature and moisture Turgor Edema Texture

12 Nails Inspect shape, colour, angle and texture
Shape should be convex and follow the curve of the finger Angle between the nail and its base should be about 160 degrees Clubbing is an abnormal sign Capillary refill

13 Pressure ulcers Important aspect to assess in client’s with restricted mobility Stages 1-4 Also a stage x which refers to those ulcers which are not able to be staged Preventable with nursing attention

14 Musculoskeletal Begin with subjective data related to the client’s musculoskeletal health Assess for any risk factors Techniques used are inspection and palpation The client’s range of motion is also assessed

15 ROM Test the range for each joint and move the client through
Compare both sides Do not force the joint beyond its normal range If the client expresses pain or discomfort stop

16 Stance and gait Stance should be evenly distributed, able to stand on heels, toes, and to have erect posture Gait: toes point straight ahead, erect posture, stride equal on both sides Assess client walking into room

17 Inspection Inspect for symmetry Redness and swelling over joints
Muscle tone and strength Ability to perform ROM

18 Palpation Palpate for warmth over joints Crepitus in a joint
Normal range of motion without any stiffness, or grinding of joints Decrease in total bone mass as we age

19 Abdominal and Nutritional
Abdomen contains several vital organs Assess the client’s subjective data Assess any risk factors that the client may have Make sure the client is lying down and that you have a warm stethoscope Patient should also have an empty bladder

20 Assessment Abdomen divided into 4 quadrants Each quadrant is assessed
The sequence is always inspection, auscultation and palpation Palpation may stimulate bowel sounds and is done after auscultation of the abdomen

21 Inspection Look at skin colour and surface characteristics, including the umbilicus, contour, symmetry, peristalsis, pulsations and masses

22 Auscultation Used to assess bowel sounds and vascular sounds
Performed systematically, using the 4 quadrants Listen for bowel sounds and note frequency and characteristics Bowel sounds are clicks and gurgles that should be heard every 5-30 seconds Listen for 1-5 minutes

23 Palpation Palpate: light and deep
Watch patient’s face for signs of discomfort Abdomen should be soft, relaxed and free of tenderness Palpate liver, spleen, kidneys: liver, spleen not palpable, only right kidney may be palpable

24 Vital Signs Provide data to reflect the status of the client’s health
Measure the temperature first, then pulse, respirations and blood pressure Important to know the client’s normal readings prior to beginning

25 Temperature Assess by oral, rectal, tympanic, axilla
Several factors may impact on normal temperature Rectal is most accurate Tympanic is quickest but may not be as accurate Axilla used for children

26 Pulse Measures contraction of the heart
Assess rate, rhythm, amplitude, contour and elasticity Rate: normal is beats per minute Tachycardia: greater than 100 Bradycardia: less than 60

27 Amplitude and contour describe the strength of the pulse
Never use your thumb to measure pulse Count for one full minute Various areas for assessing pulse

28 Respirations Monitor by observing the client’s chest rise and fall with each breath Count respirations for 30 seconds and multiply by 2 Don’t let the client know that you are counting respirations as this may change breathing pattern Normal rate: breaths per minute with a regular rhythm and equal bilateral chest expansion

29 Blood Pressure Reflects the pressure that is exerted on the walls of the arteries Expressed as the ratio of the systolic pressure over the diastolic pressure BP will normally vary over the day Normal: systolic mm Hg; diastolic mm Hg A difference of about 10 mm Hg between arms is normal If concerned always check the other arm , try different equipment or get another nurse to verify

30 Cardiac Assessment Subjective data: look at past history, risk factors
Teach risk reduction measures Tie BP, skin, nails, head, neck and thorax and lungs, and peripheral pulses into this assessment Techniques inspection, palpation and auscultation

31 Inspection Observe the neck and precordium ( front of the thorax or chest) for any visible pulsations Inspect the epigastric area for pulsation of the abdominal aorta Client should be supine with the head of bed elevated degrees

32 Palpation Systematic Assess specific cardiac landmarks: aortic, pulmonic, tricuspid, and mitral areas Each area is palpated for pulsations or thrills Assess the apical pulse in the mitral area (4th or 5th intercostal space). Use one finger pad for accurate palpation…can auscultate apical as well

33 Auscultation Used to determine the heart sounds caused by closure of the heart valves Use same landmarks as previously Listening for rate and rhythm Listen for the heart sounds (S1 and S2), these are the “lub” Dup” sounds Listen for the full lub-dup for apical pulse

34 Peripheral Vascular Assess subjective data. Assess risk factors
Teach risk reduction measures Includes measuring the BP and assessing peripheral pulses Techniques used are inspection and palpation

35 Inspection Inspect for size, symmettry, presence of edema and venous patterning Look at skin colour Look at nail colour (hands and feet): clubbing Inspect for varicosities Look at distribution of hair

36 Palpation Palpate for temperature
Palpate the pulses: peripheral, brachial, radial, carotid Use the pads of the fingers Palpate for symmetry and amplitude Palpate for edema If an occlusion is suspected you can try to auscultate

37 Capillary refill Quick and easy way to get a picture of the client’s peripheral vascular status Compress the nail bed until it blanches Release it and note the time it takes for colour to return

38 Genitourinary Assess subjective data
Normal urine should be straw coloured with no offensive odour or sediment Usually about mls of urine in bladder will stimulate the need to void but bladder can distend to hold mls Techniques inspection and palpation

39 Inspection Inspect organs associated with urination.
Looking for obvious signs of discharge or infection Any noticeable deviations from normal

40 Palpation Palpate for urethral discharge in men
Physicians can palpate the prostate gland The urinary bladder can be palpated if it is full The kidneys can be palpated but it can be difficult to feel anything

41 Kidneys Integral part of body functioning
Role is to filtrate waste from the body

42 Fluid balance Essential part of assessment
Intake includes fluid from IVs, oral, liquid meals Output includes urine, diarrhea, emesis, wound drainage Important to ensure an adequate fluid balance: positive balance when intake is greater than output, negative balance when intake is less than output

43 Labs Review your readings Review your notes
The areas covered from labs will be the “common sense” types of questions Take your time!!

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