Presentation on theme: "The Male Reproductive System Analyze the relationship between good personal hygiene, health promotion, and disease prevention. Describe the functioning."— Presentation transcript:
The Male Reproductive System
Analyze the relationship between good personal hygiene, health promotion, and disease prevention. Describe the functioning of the male reproductive system. Relate the importance of early detection & warning signs that prompt individuals to seek health care for the male reproductive system.
Male & Female reproductive systems- produce the cells needed to make a new human being. External Male Reproductive Organs ◦ Scrotum ◦ Testes ◦ Penis
Scrotum 1. loose sac of skin that hangs outside the body 2. holds the testes Testes (testicles)- male sex organs 1.Manufacture testosterone ( male sex hormone) 2.Produce sperm (male reproductive cells)
To produce sperm, the temperature of the testes must be a few degrees lower than the normal body temperature of 98.6 degrees F The scrotum keeps the testes at the right temperature by holding the testes away from or close to the body.
Sperm are produced in a section of the testes called the seminiferous tubules ( thousands of sperm produced every second) Sperm move into the epididymis (a highly coiled structure located on the back side of each testis) Maturation continues in the epididymis and takes about 64 days.
A mature sperm is one of the smallest cells in the body. Each sperm carries 23 chromosomes When a sperm unites with a female ovum which also carries 23 chromosomes, the result is one cell with 46 chromosomes & production of a human offspring
tube-like organ that functions in both sexual reproduction & elimination of body wastes. When sponge-like tissues of the penis fill with blood, the penis becomes enlarged and hard, or erect. The penis must be erect for semen (mixture of semen and glandular secretions) to leave the body.
Ejaculation occurs (release of semen from the penis) As many as million sperm are released. Fertilization-joining of a male sperm cell and a female egg cell can result if ejaculation takes place during sexual intercourse.
Internal Male Reproductive structures include: ◦ Vas deferens ◦ Urethra ◦ Seminal vesicles ◦ Prostate and Cowper’s glands
Main carrier of sperm Sperm travel into the vas deferens (a long tube that connects each epididymis with the urethra) Urethra exits the body at the tip of the penis.
Duct that extends from the urinary bladder through the prostate to the tip of the penis. Carries urine from the bladder through the penis and out of the body Carries semen through the penis and out of the body When the penis becomes erect, muscles close off the bladder and keeps urine from entering the urethra, so its physically impossible to carry both urine and semen at the same time.
Reproductive glands add secretions that support sperm as they move through the reproductive system Semen consists of sperm and secretions from the testes, the seminal vesicles, the prostate, and Cowper’s glands.
Contribute the most secretions-about 60% Located on either side of the prostate gland These secretions help make the sperm mobile and provide them with nourishment
Lies just below the bladder and surrounds the urethra About the size of a walnut Secretes a milky, alkaline fluid that mixes with sperm to help neutralize the acids found in the urethra and in the female’s vagina during intercourse.
Two pea-sized glands just below the prostate that open into the urethra Secrete a clear mucus into the urethra to help carry and protect sperm
Nocturnal Emissions Hernia Sterility Cancer of the testes or prostate
Known as “wet dreams” In puberty, glands begin to produce semen and to relieve buildup of pressure, males have ejaculations while they are asleep. May be accompanied by a dream with sexual content Are perfectly normal.
Males are prone to hernias (occur when an internal organ pushes through the wall of a muscle) Inguinal hernia (common hernia caused by heavy lifting) - A muscle tears allowing part of the intestine to push through the abdominal wall into the scrotum.
Male sterility is the inability of the male to produce an offspring Causes include overheating of the testes, exposure to certain chemicals, contacting mumps as an adult, or problems with the epididymis, vas deferens, and urethra Gonorrhea, syphilis, & genital herpes cause infections that can damage the male reproductive system and cause sterility.
Occurs most often between the ages of 14 and 40. Main risk factor - undescended testes. First sign is usually a lump or an enlargement of the testis. If found early, the cure rate is very high. Monthly self-examination is important for early detection.
1) Enlarged prostate- common in older men causes difficulty urinating due to swelling of prostate Gland putting pressure on the urethra can interfere with sexual function can be treated with antibiotics or surgery
2) Prostate cancer – Symptoms include: frequent or difficult urination, pain when urinating, blood in the urine, or lingering pain in the back, hips or pelvis. Males over age 50 should be tested for prostate cancer during routine medical exams.
As males progress through puberty and into adulthood, regular medical exams, personal hygiene including cleansing of the external organs and monthly self-examinations of the testes to check for swelling, lumps, changes in size, shape or consistency are important.
The Female Reproductive System
Describe the functions of the female reproductive system Explain the importance of early detection & warning signs that prompt individuals to seek health care for the female reproductive system Analyze the relationship between good personal hygiene & disease prevention
The organs of the female reproductive system are primarily internal The Vulva (external female reproductive organs) consists of mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, vaginal opening clitoris.
Mons Pubis a rounded mound of fatty tissue located over the pubic bone Labia Labia Majora -the fatty folds on either side of the vaginal opening that provide moisture and lubrication Labia minora- two smaller folds of skin located between the labia majora that contain many nerve endings and are highly sensitive -serve as a line of protection against pathogens entering the body and also function directly in sexual arousal
The vaginal opening lies between the labia minora and may be blocked by a thin membrane called the hymen. Also, above the vaginal opening is the urethra through which urine is secreted Below the mon pubis, where the labia minora meet is a small knob of tissue called the clitoris, which plays a major role in female sexual arousal.
Vagina – is a muscular passageway that lies between the bladder and the rectum. It serves as the organ of intercourse, birth canal and passageway for menstrual flow 4 to 5 inches long and extends from the uterus to the outside of the body Made up of three layers: mucous (which is supplied with blood vessels), muscular layer and elastic layer
Normally is close together but stretches apart for sexual intercourse or for the birthing of a child Is normally moist and acidic A continuous secretion of dead cells mixed with lubricating fluid comes from the cervix and the vagina This helps keep the vagina clean and helps prevent pathogens from growing inside the vagina
Uterus- is the organ that prepares each month to receive a fertilized ovum; also known as the womb Its primary function is to hold & nourish a developing embryo & fetus It will expand to hold a growing fetus Has an inner lining called the endometrium, which provides attachment of the embryo
Endometrium – is the inner lining of the uterus Each month it becomes thicker in order to prepare a place for a fertilized ovum to implant and grow When there is no fertilized ovum, it is shed as the menstrual flow Cervix-neck of the uterus, during childbirth it dilates to allow passage of the baby
There are no nerve endings on the cervix It contains glands that secrete mucus Cells are scraped from the wall of the cervix for a Pap smear (we will discuss Pap smear later on in the chapter)
Fallopian tubes are tubes that extend from the ovaries to the uterus Is to transport ova to the uterus The fallopian tubes has a suctions called cilia that help move the ova down to the uterus Cilia are hair like projections on the inner surface of some organs
An ovum moves about 1 inch every 24 hours It normally is healthy and alive for approximately 24 to 48 hours This means that fertilization (which is the joining of a sperm and an ovum) usually occurs in the fallopian tube within two inches of the uterus
Ovaries are two almond-shaped female sex glands that produce ova and secrete hormones There located on both sides of the uterus & release ova on a regular basis At birth a female has hundreds of thousands of immature ova in her ovaries At puberty hormones cause the ova to mature
The process of releasing one mature ovum each month into a fallopian tube is called ovulation. The ovum can live up to a day in the fallopian tube If sperm are present and one successfully penetrates the ovum, fertilization occurs and pregnancy begins
Each month, the uterus prepares for possible pregnancy Hormones cause the endometrium to build up a thick layer of blood vessels & other tissue to ready the body for pregnancy If pregnancy does not occur the lining sheds. This process is called menstruation, shedding of the uterine lining
Most females begin menstruating between the ages of 10 and 15 yrs old & continues until about age 50 when menopause occurs After the menstrual period ends, usually within 4-7 days, the cycle begins There are approximately 28 days in the menstrual cycle
Good hygiene is especially important during menstrual period; daily bathing/showering There are products that can be used for menstrual flow…sanitary napkins or pads, tampons and or panty liners, but they must be changed frequently and not left in overnight
Some women experience premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in a week or two before their period. Symptoms include anxiety, depression, irritability, bloating, mood swings and fatigue. Symptoms can often be relieved by changes in diet and increasing physical activity and sometimes medications.
Click on Image
Some females suffer from dysmenorrhea, severe cramps Controlled by over-the-counter pain medications, light exercise, heating pads, warm baths. Amenorrhea- lack of menstruation. Can be a result of physical defects, disease (diabetes), tumors, infections, anorexia, and sometimes from exercising too rigorously. You should seek professional help
Infertility- inability to bear children has a variety of causes: ◦ Blocking of fallopian tubes ◦ Hormonal problems ◦ Endometriosis- the uterine lining grows outside the uterus ◦ STDs can also lead to infertility (gonorrhea, chlamydia, HPV)
What is toxic chock syndrome (TSS)? ◦ Is a rare, serious disease that is caused by certain toxin- producing strains of staphylococuus aureus bacterium. ◦ May occur during or just after menstruation ◦ Symptoms include fever, chills, vomiting, diarrhea, and rash. ◦ There is a relationship between TSS and tampon use.
Vaginitis- inflammation of vaginal tissue with discharge, burning, & itching. Yeast infections- caused by a fungus; white, odorless discharge, itching, burning & painful urination Bacterial vaginosis Trichomoniasis- caused by a protozoan
Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and is the second leading cause of death There is no known way to prevent it, but early detection through regular medical exams & monthly self examinations are the best defense. Symptoms include a change in breast or nipple appearance, a lump or swelling in the breast or armpit
Includes the following: Visual- begins by checking the external reproductive organs for any irritation, lumps, swelling and discoloration Speculum Pelvic examination. A metal or plastic speculum is inserted into the vagina to hold apart the vaginal walls.
A Pap Smear is a screening test for cervical cancer in which cells are scraped from the cervix. A small wooden spatula or a round bristled brush is used to scrape cells from the cervix. Bimanual Pelvic Examination is a procedure in which a nurse or doctor inserts the index finger and middle fingers into the vagina and puts the other hand on the stomach and check the reproductive organs.
1. List the external and internal male & female reproductive organs. 2. Describe two ways to care for the male reproductive system and its importance. 3. Describe two ways to care for the female reproductive system and its importance.
4. Name one male and one female reproductive disorder and relate the importance of early detection and warning signs that prompt individuals to seek treatment to prevent di sease.