Presentation on theme: "The Male Reproductive System"— Presentation transcript:
1The Male Reproductive System Chapter 3 Lesson 1The Male Reproductive System
2You’ll learn to…Analyze the relationship between good personal hygiene, health promotion, and disease prevention.Describe the functioning of the male reproductive system.Relate the importance of early detection & warning signs that prompt individuals to seek health care for the male reproductive system.
3The Male Reproductive System Male & Female reproductive systems- produce the cells needed to make a new human being.External Male Reproductive OrgansScrotumTestesPenis
5External Male Reproductive Organs Scrotum1. loose sac of skin that hangs outside the body2. holds the testesTestes (testicles)- male sex organs1.Manufacture testosterone ( male sex hormone)2.Produce sperm (male reproductive cells)
6External Male Reproductive Organs (Testes) continued… To produce sperm, the temperature of the testes must be a few degrees lower than the normal body temperature of 98.6 degrees FThe scrotum keeps the testes at the right temperature by holding the testes away from or close to the body.
7External Male Reproductive Organs (Sperm) continued… Sperm are produced in a section of the testes called the seminiferous tubules ( thousands of sperm produced every second)Sperm move into the epididymis (a highly coiled structure located on the back side of each testis)Maturation continues in the epididymis and takes about 64 days.
8External Male Reproductive Organs (Sperm) continued… A mature sperm is one of the smallest cells in the body.Each sperm carries 23 chromosomesWhen a sperm unites with a female ovum which also carries 23 chromosomes, the result is one cell with 46 chromosomes & production of a human offspring
9The Penistube-like organ that functions in both sexual reproduction & elimination of body wastes.When sponge-like tissues of the penis fill with blood, the penis becomes enlarged and hard, or erect.The penis must be erect for semen (mixture of semen and glandular secretions) to leave the body.
10The Penis continued…Ejaculation occurs (release of semen from the penis)As many as million sperm are released.Fertilization-joining of a male sperm cell and a female egg cell can result if ejaculation takes place during sexual intercourse.
11Internal Male Reproductive Organs Internal Male Reproductive structures include:Vas deferensUrethraSeminal vesiclesProstate and Cowper’s glands
13Internal Male Reproductive Organs… Vas deferens Main carrier of spermSperm travel into the vas deferens (a long tube that connects each epididymis with the urethra)Urethraexits the body at the tip of the penis.
14Internal Male Reproductive Organs… Urethra Duct that extends from the urinary bladder through the prostate to the tip of the penis.Carries urine from the bladder through the penis and out of the bodyCarries semen through the penis and out of the bodyWhen the penis becomes erect, muscles close off the bladder and keeps urine from entering the urethra, so its physically impossible to carry both urine and semen at the same time.
15Internal Male Reproductive Organs… Reproductive glands Reproductive glands add secretions that support sperm as they move through the reproductive systemSemen consists of sperm and secretions from the testes, the seminal vesicles, the prostate, and Cowper’s glands.
16Internal Male Reproductive Organs… Seminal vesicles Contribute the most secretions-about 60%Located on either side of the prostate glandThese secretions help make the sperm mobile and provide them with nourishment
17Internal Male Reproductive Organs… Prostate gland Lies just below the bladder and surrounds the urethraAbout the size of a walnutSecretes a milky, alkaline fluid that mixes with sperm to help neutralize the acids found in the urethra and in the female’s vagina during intercourse.
18Internal Male Reproductive Organs… Cowper’s glands Two pea-sized glands just below the prostate that open into the urethraSecrete a clear mucus into the urethra to help carry and protect sperm
19Concerns About the Male Reproductive System Nocturnal EmissionsHerniaSterilityCancer of the testes or prostate
20Nocturnal Emissions Known as “wet dreams” In puberty, glands begin to produce semen and to relieve buildup of pressure, males have ejaculations while they are asleep.May be accompanied by a dream with sexual contentAre perfectly normal.
21Hernia ProblemsMales are prone to hernias (occur when an internal organ pushes through the wall of a muscle)Inguinal hernia (common hernia caused by heavy lifting) - A muscle tears allowing part of the intestine to push through the abdominal wall into the scrotum.
22Sterility & STDsMale sterility is the inability of the male to produce an offspringCauses include overheating of the testes, exposure to certain chemicals, contacting mumps as an adult, or problems with the epididymis, vas deferens, and urethraGonorrhea, syphilis, & genital herpes cause infections that can damage the male reproductive system and cause sterility.
23Testicular Cancer Occurs most often between the ages of 14 and 40. Main risk factor - undescended testes.First sign is usually a lump or an enlargement of the testis.If found early, the cure rate is very high.Monthly self-examination is important for early detection.
24Disorders of the Prostate 1) Enlarged prostate-common in older mencauses difficulty urinating due to swelling of prostateGland putting pressure on the urethracan interfere with sexual functioncan be treated with antibiotics or surgery
25Disorders of the Prostate continued… 2) Prostate cancer – Symptoms include: frequent or difficult urination, pain when urinating, blood in the urine, or lingering pain in the back, hips or pelvis. Males over age 50 should be tested for prostate cancer during routine medical exams.
26Male Reproductive Health As males progress through puberty and intoadulthood, regular medical exams, personal hygieneincluding cleansing of the external organsand monthly self-examinations of the testes to checkfor swelling, lumps, changes in size, shape orconsistency are important.
27The Female Reproductive System Chapter 3 Lesson 2The Female Reproductive System
28You’ll Learn To…Describe the functions of the female reproductive systemExplain the importance of early detection & warning signs that prompt individuals to seek health care for the female reproductive systemAnalyze the relationship between good personal hygiene & disease prevention
29External Female Reproductive Organs The organs of the female reproductive system are primarily internalThe Vulva (external female reproductive organs) consists ofmons pubis,labia majora,labia minora,vaginal openingclitoris.
30The Mons Pubis and Labia a rounded mound of fatty tissue located over the pubic boneLabiaLabia Majora -the fatty folds on either side of the vaginal opening that provide moisture and lubricationLabia minora- two smaller folds of skin located between the labia majora that contain many nerve endings and are highly sensitive-serve as a line of protection against pathogens entering the body and also function directly in sexual arousal
32The Vaginal OpeningThe vaginal opening lies between the labia minora and may be blocked by a thin membrane called the hymen.Also, above the vaginal opening is the urethra through which urine is secretedBelow the mon pubis, where the labia minora meet is a small knob of tissue called the clitoris, which plays a major role in female sexual arousal.
33The Internal Female Reproductive Organs VaginaUterusFallopian Tubes (or the oviducts)Ovaries
34The Internal Female Reproductive Organs Vagina – is a muscular passageway that lies between the bladder and the rectum.It serves as the organ of intercourse, birth canal and passageway for menstrual flow4 to 5 inches long and extends from the uterus to the outside of the bodyMade up of three layers: mucous (which is supplied with blood vessels), muscular layer and elastic layer
35Vagina cont…Normally is close together but stretches apart for sexual intercourse or for the birthing of a childIs normally moist and acidicA continuous secretion of dead cells mixed with lubricating fluid comes from the cervix and the vaginaThis helps keep the vagina clean and helps prevent pathogens from growing inside the vagina
36The Internal Female Reproductive Organs Uterus- is the organ that prepares each month to receive a fertilized ovum; also known as the wombIts primary function is to hold & nourish a developing embryo & fetusIt will expand to hold a growing fetusHas an inner lining called the endometrium, which provides attachment of the embryo
37Uterus cont… Endometrium – is the inner lining of the uterus Each month it becomes thicker in order to prepare a place for a fertilized ovum to implant and growWhen there is no fertilized ovum, it is shed as the menstrual flowCervix-neck of the uterus, during childbirth it dilates to allow passage of the baby
38Uterus cont… There are no nerve endings on the cervix It contains glands that secrete mucusCells are scraped from the wall of the cervix for a Pap smear (we will discuss Pap smear later on in the chapter)
39Internal FRSFallopian tubes are tubes that extend from the ovaries to the uterusIs to transport ova to the uterusThe fallopian tubes has a suctions called cilia that help move the ova down to the uterusCilia are hair like projections on the inner surface of some organs
40Fallopian tubes cont… An ovum moves about 1 inch every 24 hours It normally is healthy and alive for approximately 24 to 48 hoursThis means that fertilization (which is the joining of a sperm and an ovum) usually occurs in the fallopian tube within two inches of the uterus
41Internal FRSOvaries are two almond-shaped female sex glands that produce ova and secrete hormonesThere located on both sides of the uterus & release ova on a regular basisAt birth a female has hundreds of thousands of immature ova in her ovariesAt puberty hormones cause the ova to mature
42Ovaries cont…The process of releasing one mature ovum each month into a fallopian tube is called ovulation.The ovum can live up to a day in the fallopian tubeIf sperm are present and one successfully penetrates the ovum, fertilization occurs and pregnancy begins
43The Menstrual CycleEach month, the uterus prepares for possible pregnancyHormones cause the endometrium to build up a thick layer of blood vessels & other tissue to ready the body for pregnancyIf pregnancy does not occur the lining sheds.This process is called menstruation, shedding of the uterine lining
44Menstrual Cycle continued… Most females begin menstruating between the ages of 10 and 15 yrs old & continues until about age 50 when menopause occursAfter the menstrual period ends, usually within 4-7 days, the cycle beginsThere are approximately 28 days in the menstrual cycle
45Menstrual Health CareGood hygiene is especially important during menstrual period; daily bathing/showeringThere are products that can be used for menstrual flow…sanitary napkins or pads, tampons and or panty liners, but they must be changed frequently and not left in overnight
46Menstrual ProblemsSome women experience premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in a week or two before their period.Symptoms include anxiety, depression, irritability, bloating, mood swings and fatigue.Symptoms can often be relieved by changes in diet and increasing physical activity and sometimes medications.
48Menstrual Problems continued… Some females suffer from dysmenorrhea, severe crampsControlled by over-the-counter pain medications, light exercise, heating pads, warm baths.Amenorrhea- lack of menstruation. Can be a result of physical defects, disease (diabetes), tumors, infections, anorexia, and sometimes from exercising too rigorously.You should seek professional help
49Female Infertility & STDs Infertility- inability to bear children has a variety of causes:Blocking of fallopian tubesHormonal problemsEndometriosis- the uterine lining grows outside the uterusSTDs can also lead to infertility (gonorrhea, chlamydia, HPV)
50Problems with Infection What is toxic chock syndrome (TSS)?Is a rare, serious disease that is caused by certain toxin- producing strains of staphylococuus aureus bacterium.May occur during or just after menstruationSymptoms include fever, chills, vomiting, diarrhea, and rash.There is a relationship between TSS and tampon use.
51Problems with Infection continued… Vaginitis- inflammation of vaginal tissue with discharge, burning, & itching.Yeast infections- caused by a fungus; white, odorless discharge, itching, burning & painful urinationBacterial vaginosisTrichomoniasis- caused by a protozoan
52CancerBreast cancer is the most common form of cancer and is the second leading cause of deathThere is no known way to prevent it, but early detection through regular medical exams & monthly self examinations are the best defense.Symptoms include a change in breast or nipple appearance, a lump or swelling in the breast or armpit
53Pelvic Examination Includes the following: Includes the following:Visual- begins by checking the external reproductive organs for any irritation, lumps, swelling and discolorationSpeculum Pelvic examination. A metal or plastic speculum is inserted into the vagina to hold apart the vaginal walls.
54Pelvic ExaminationA Pap Smear is a screening test for cervical cancer in which cells are scraped from the cervix.A small wooden spatula or a round bristled brush is used to scrape cells from the cervix.Bimanual Pelvic Examination is a procedure in which a nurse or doctor inserts the index finger and middle fingers into the vagina and puts the other hand on the stomach and check the reproductive organs.
55The Breast Self-Examination…click on the site below… html
56Chapter 3 Lesson 1 & 2 Review Questions List the external and internal male & female reproductive organs.Describe two ways to care for the male reproductive system and its importance.Describe two ways to care for the female reproductive system and its importance.
57Chapter 3 Lesson 1 & 2 Review Questions… 4. Name one male and one female reproductive disorder and relate the importance of early detection and warning signs that prompt individuals to seek treatment to prevent disease.