Presentation on theme: "From Healthcare Provider to Teen:"— Presentation transcript:
1From Healthcare Provider to Teen: ______________________________________________________What You Need to Know About Sex and SexualityNote for the presenter: Please note that this slide set will take over an hour to present, as it contains a lot of information. Therefore, you will want to try to engage your attendees as much as possible by asking questions and breaking out into group activities to better hold their attention. Also, you may want to pick and chose which sections and/or parts of sections to include in your talk. Please see the handout “10 Methods for Obtaining Participation” for some helpful tips.Talking Points:Overview of sections (5 sections)Your bodySexualitySexPregnancy riskSexually transmitted diseases (or STDs)Prevention and tips for making sure you get the best possible healthcare
2Our BodiesOverview: In this section, we’re going to talk about your bodies, genitals, reproductive organs, and reproductive cells.
4Parts That Everyone Has Urethral openingButtocksAnusGenitalsNipplesUrethraQuestion for audience: What do we all have in common?Define: Slang synonymsTalking Points:Genitals: The sexual and reproductive parts of both females and males. In females, the genitals include the vulva, clitoris, vagina, and internal organs such as the uterus. In males, the genitals include the penis testicles, scrotum, and internal organs such as the prostate gland.The nipples: The tops of both males’ and females’ chests that contain many nerve endings. They can be very sensitive to touch and stimulation can cause the nipples to become erect. When a woman breastfeeds, milk comes out of the nipples.Urethra: The tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. In males, semen also travels through the urethra to the outside of the body.Urethral Opening: Is where urine comes out of the body.Buttocks: The part of the body at the top of the legs where the anus is located.Anus: The opening from the intestine to the outside of the body. This is where feces comes out.Source: Kempner M, Rodriguez M. Talk About Sex. Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States. New York, NY: 2005.
5Body Diversity Your body is unique! There is no right or wrong way for a body to look.Talking Points:All bodies and external genitalia come in many different shapes and sizes. Everyone’s body is unique.There is no right or wrong way for a body to look.Most people have male or female genitalia, but a small number of people have parts that are not clearly either.Define: Intersex and IntersexualityAn intersexual is a person born with genitals or chromosomes that are not clearly male or female.“Intersex” is a general term used for a variety of conditions in which a person is born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy that doesn’t seem to fit the typical definitions of female or male. For example, a person might be born appearing to be female on the outside, but having mostly male-typical anatomy on the inside. Or a person may be born with genitals that seem to be in between the usual male and female types—for example, a girl may be born with a noticeably large clitoris, or lacking a vaginal opening, or a boy may be born with a notably small penis, or with a scrotum that is divided so that it has formed more like labia. Or a person may be born with mosaic genetics, so that some of her cells have XX chromosomes and some of them have XY.
6Your BodyMaleTalking Point: Every man’s body is different looking and unique.
10Male Reproductive Cells SpermShort for spermatozoaCells that carry male’s genetic materialSource:10
11What is semen? A fluid that comes out of the penis during ejaculation Millions of sperm in each drop of semenUsually a teaspoon to a tablespoon of semen is released during an ejaculation
12What is an erection? Blood flows into the penis making it firm Can occur in sexual and non-sexual situationsAlmost all erect penises are around the same sizeIt is normal for a guy’s erect penis to curve to the right or left
13Your BodyFemaleTalking Point: Every woman’s body is different looking and unique.
16Female Reproductive Cells Ovum (Egg)Cells that carry the female’s genetic materialOnce a woman starts getting her menstrual period, her ovaries usually release one ovum a monthSource: Kempner M, Rodriguez M. Talk About Sex. Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States. New York, NY:2005.
17Menstruation Menstruation prepares a female’s body for pregnancy During a female’s menstrual period, her body sheds the uterine liningMenstrual blood flows from the uterus through the small opening in the cervix and passes out of the body through the vaginaTalking Points: The Menstrual CycleIn the first half of the cycle, levels of estrogen (the “female hormone”) start to rise and make the lining of the uterus (womb) grow and thicken. At the same time, an egg (ovum) in one of the ovaries starts to mature. At about day 14 of a typical 28-day cycle, the egg leaves the ovary. This is called ovulation.After the egg has left the ovary, it travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus. Hormone levels rise and help prepare the uterine lining for pregnancy. A woman is most likely to get pregnant during the three days before ovulation or on the day of ovulation. Keep in mind, females with cycles that are shorter or longer than average may ovulate earlier or later than day 14.If the egg is fertilized by a man’s sperm cell and attaches to the uterine wall, the woman becomes pregnant. If the egg is not fertilized, it will break apart. If pregnancy does not occur, hormone levels drop, and the thickened lining of the uterus is shed during the menstrual period.
18What is an erection? Can occur in sexual and non-sexual situations During excitement, the clitoris swells and changes positionThe size and shape of the clitoris varies in each woman, although its location is pretty much the same for all females
19Let’s Talk About Sexuality Overview: In this section, we’re going to talk about attraction, sexual orientation, and gender identity.
20Section 2: Attraction Sexual Orientation Gender Identity Overview: In this section, we’re going to talk about attraction, sexual orientation, and gender identity.
22Sexual OrientationTerm used to describe people’s physical and romantic attractions to other peopleThe majority of medical professionals believe people are born with their sexual orientationTalking Points: Your sexual orientation will influence whom you find attractive.
23Sexual Orientation Includes Heterosexual (Straight)Attracted to people of another genderHomosexual (Gay or Lesbian)Attracted to people of the same genderBisexual (Bi)Attracted to people of both gendersUnsure or questioningTrying to figure it outTalking Points:The most common labels of sexual orientation are heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual.So what do these labels mean?Heterosexual or “straight” is used to describe to people who are attracted to people of the opposite gender.Homosexual (lesbian or gay) is used to describe people who are attracted to people of the same gender.The term bisexual is used to describe people who are attracted to people the of same gender and people of the opposite gender.People can get really caught up with labeling themselves. Sometimes, we’re not sure which label might apply to us or whether we need one at all.For some people, their sexual thoughts and feelings are different from how they label themselves. That means that a guy who considers himself to be “straight” could be attracted to a man, maybe even be sexual with that man, but not consider himself to be bisexual or gay.Understanding your sexual orientation can be confusing, scary, and lonely. But it can also be freeing to identify this one aspect of who you are. It can take a long time to figure out, and even once you think you’ve done it, something might happen that makes you question what you thought you knew. That is all totally normal.Source: Kempner M, Rodriguez M. Talk About Sex. Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States. New York, NY:2005.
24Gender Identity Includes MaleFemaleTransgenderNoneDefinition: TransgenderTransgender is used to describe people whose inner sense of maleness or femaleness does not conform their biological sex.Transgender people are often described as:Male-to-female (M-to-F)Female-to-male (F-to-M)Transgender people are also described by the sex they currently identify with (“male identified”).Some people do not identify as any gender.
25Now Let’s Talk About Sex Overview: In this section, we’re going to talk about sex and sexual stimulation.Source: Image #25
26Section 3:What is sex?What is sexual stimulation?
27What are some types of sexual activity? KissingMutual masturbationOutercourseDry humpingGenital-to-genitalcontactMasturbationOral sexVaginal sexAnal sexQuestion for audience: Ask about what the audience thinks are types of sex and what slang they use.Masturbation is when a person touches his or her own genitals.Mutual masturbation is touching another person’s genitals.Anal sex is when a penis is put inside the anus.Vaginal sex is when a penis is put inside the vagina.Definitions:Oral sex is sexual play that involves either penis in the mouth or the mouth on the vagina.Dry humping is when two people rub their bodies against each other—often moving their genitals together and simulating the motions of intercourse without actually having it. People can be partially or fully clothed or not wear clothes at all. It's also called dry sex. This is a type of outercourse.Outercourse is sexual play that does not involve the penis penetrating the vagina or anus, and does not involve the exchange of semen, vaginal fluids, or blood.penetration into a vagina or an anus that involves no semen, vaginal fluids, or blood27
28What can happen when a person becomes sexually stimulated? For MalesThe penis hardens and forms an erectionA fluid called pre-ejaculate is released from the penisFor FemalesBlood rushes to the clitorisThe vagina becomes wetFor Both Male and FemalesNipples become erectNote: pre-ejaculate is also called pre-cum
29* Not all erections end in ejaculation Sexual Climax: MalesA man ejaculates (semen comes out of the penis)* Not all erections end in ejaculationTalking Points:For both males and females, sexual climax is also referred to as an orgasmExplain that cum is the same thing as semen
30Sexual Climax: Females The muscles of the vaginal wall contractIt is normal for a woman to ejaculate liquid out of her urethra* Not all females will have a sexual climax during each sex act
31How many of your high school peers have had vaginal sex? Less Than HalfIncreases by grade:34% of 9th graders43% of 10th graders51% of 11th graders63% of 12th gradersTalking Point: In 2005, less than 1/2 of high school students in the United States had had vaginal sex.Source: YRBS 2005
33Section 4: Pregnancy Risk Myths Overview: In this section, we’re going to talk about how females can get pregnant and some myths about pregnancy risk. We will talk later about how to prevent pregnancy.
34What type of sex puts you at risk for pregnancy? Vaginal SexGenital-to-genital contact (only when semen is ejaculated)
36Does a woman have to orgasm to get pregnant? No, she does not.36
37Some Things to Keep in Mind Teenagers are very fertileSperm can live inside of a woman’s body for up to 5 daysEven if a guy pulls out, there is still a risk of pregnancyDefinition: Pulling out is when a man withdraws his penis from the vagina before he ejaculates.Talking Point: Why pulling out is not safe:1) Pre-ejaculate or “pre-cum” can contain sperm2) The average speed of ejaculation is 28 miles per hourSource:
38STIs and STDsOverview: In this section, we’re going to talk about what STIs and STDs are and how you can get one. We will talk later about how to prevent getting an STD.
39Section 5:Define STIs and STDsHow you can get an STD
40What are STIs and STDs? STI STD An infection spread by sexual contact with certain body partsSTDAn infection that has developed symptomsTalking Points:Some of these are curable, and some are not.These are caused by bacterial, viral or parasitic pathogens that are acquired through sexual activity.Many people use these terms interchangeably or will just use STD. The rest of this presentation will use the term STD.
41Each year, how many teens contract an STD? More than 9 million new cases of STDs each year in people ages 15-24By age 25, half of sexually active people will have had an STDEach year, 1 in 4 teens contracts an STDSources:1) Guttmacher Institute. (2006) Facts on American Teens' Sexual and Reproductive Health. New York2) Cates JR, Herndon NL, Schulz S L, Darroch JE. (2004). Our voices, our lives, our futures: Youth and sexually transmitted diseases. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Journalism and Mass Communication.3) Guttmacher Institute. (1994). Sex and America's Teenagers. New York: Alan Guttmacher Institute
42What types of sex put you at risk for STDs? Vaginal sexAnal sexOral sexGenital-to-genital contact
43What about if you just touch someone’s genitals with your hand? This is less risky, but…If you have any cuts or sores, you can get or give someone an STD
44Things That Increase Your Risk Having vaginal sex at a young ageHaving more than one partner at the same timeNot using condoms and dental dams correctly every timeTalking Point: Why sex at a young age increases riskHaving sex before age 15 is risky because a female’s vagina may not lubricate sufficiently, which means that vaginal tearing is more likely to occur. Also, an undeveloped cervix cannot ward off infection well. And, of course, having sex at earlier may suggest more partners throughout the lifespan.
45Can you tell by looking at someone that he/she has an STD? 45
46No, you can’t tell! Most of the time, STDs have no symptoms When there are symptoms, they include:Burning when you urinateDischarge from the penis or the vaginaBumps or spots
47Curable STDs Chlamydia Gonorrhea Definitions: Chlamydia A sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria. It often has no symptoms. When symptoms occur, they can include burning during peeing, discharge, and bleeding during sex for females. For males, pain during peeing and a watery discharge are common symptoms.Chlamydia is the most common STD in the United States and can cause serious health problems if not treated; it is the leading cause of preventable infertility and ectopic pregnancy since it can cause scarring and damage to the female reproductive system if it is not treated early. Because chlamydia is a bacterial infection, it can be cured easily with antibiotics.GonorrheaA sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria. Symptoms in males include a discharge from the penis and increased need to pee. For females, there may be a discharge from the vagina, but many females (and some males too) will not have any symptoms. Gonorrhea can be treated and cured with antibiotics.Source:
48Treatable STDs Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Can cause cervical cancer and genital wartsHerpesHIV and AIDSDefinitions:HPVThe Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection that may cause small, painless bumps around the genitals, anus, and/or mouth. The virus cannot be cured. Some strains of the HPV virus are linked to an increased risk of cervical cancer among females, which is why it is very important to get regular Pap smears. Early detection can prevent cervical cancer. There is now a vaccine available for certain strains of the virus. Ask your doctor for more information about the vaccine (Gardasil).HerpesA sexually transmitted infection that is caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV). It can also be transmitted non-sexually and causes small, blister-like sores (cold sores) around the mouth or genitals. Herpes type 1 is typically associated with sores around the mouth, while Herpes type 2 is typically associated with sores around the genitals or anus. Genital herpes can not be cured, but the symptoms can be treated using antiviral medications. Source: Sex Etc.HIVHIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. This is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV is different from most other viruses because it attacks the immune system. The immune system gives our bodies the ability to fight infections. HIV finds and destroys a type of white blood cell (T cells or CD4 cells) that the immune system must have to fight disease.AIDSAIDS is the final stage of HIV infection. It can take years for a person infected with HIV, even without treatment, to reach this stage. Having AIDS means that the virus has weakened the immune system to the point at which the body has a difficult time fighting infections. When someone has one or more of these infections and a low number of T cells, he or she has AIDS.Source: CDC48
49If You Think You Have Been Exposed to an STD Get testedSTD clinics offer confidential screeningIf the test is positive, follow your doctor’s advice for treatmentTalk to your partner(s) and tell them to get tested
51Section 6: Your many choices Tips for making your choices Emergency contraceptionPregnancyTalking Points: In this section, we’re going to talk about how to prevent pregnancy and STDs. We’re going to talk about your different options, including abstinence, barrier methods, and hormonal contraception, as well as tips for making your choices. Lastly, we’re going to talk about emergency contraception and what your options are in the case of pregnancy.
52What You Can Do to Prevent Pregnancy 1) Abstinence2) Barrier Methods3) Hormonal Contraception
53What You Can Do to Prevent STDs 1) Abstinence2) Male Condoms, Female Condoms, and Dental DamsTalking Points:Only abstinence, and male and female condoms can protect against pregnancy and STDs53
54Abstinence #1 way to protect yourself What do I consider to be abstinence?Is it right for me?Is it right for my partner?Am I comfortable communicating my intentions to your partner?Define: AbstinenceSexual abstinence is a choice to refrain from most or all sexual activity.Talking Points: Why chose abstinence?It is the only 100% effective way to protect yourself from STDs and pregnancy.54
55What can I do that is safe? Dry humping (with clothes on)MasturbationSexual talk (chatting/IM, phone sex, sharing fantasies)Note for the presenter: IM refers to instant messaging55
56Masturbation: A Safe Form of Sex Both males and females can and do masturbateCauses no physical harm and there is no risk of pregnancy or STDsCan relieve stress, tension, and sexual desireFamiliarizes you with your body56
58Questions to Ask Yourself Before Deciding to Have Sex Am I emotionally ready to have sex?Do I trust my partner?Do I feel pressured into this decision?How do my religious beliefs, spiritualbeliefs, and values affect my choice?How will I feel after?Talking Points: These questions are for the first time or with a new partner.Question for the audience: What questions do you think you could ask?58
59What should you do before having sex for the first time, or with a new partner? Get testedDiscuss past exposure to STDsDiscuss boundariesTalk to your doctor and develop a pregnancy and STD prevention planTalking Points:Before you have sex for the first time or with a new partner, review this checklist.When discussing boundaries, find out what you and your partner are comfortable doing.Get tested once a year and before having sex with a new partner.Ask if your partner has been tested in the last 6 months.It is the responsibility of both partners.Talking to a doctor and a parent (or trusted adult) will help you to make a good pregnancy and STD prevention plan.
60What should you ask when making an appointment? How much will my visit cost?Can my partner come with me?Are services confidential?Are you going to call my house?Are you going to mail my test results?
61Tips for Talking to Your Doctor Be honestAsk questionsAsk for an explanationTalking Points:Be honest, so the doctor knows everything and can give you the best care.Ask questions about sex, your body, condoms, birth control, STDs, etc. This is your chance.Ask for an explanation if you don’t understand what the doctor has said or why something is being done.Source: NYC Health & Take Care NY “Teens in NY” publication
62Things That Will Not Protect You from STDs and Pregnancy Douching or washing after sexWithdrawing before ejaculationUsing plastic wrap instead of a condom62
63Hormonal Contraception Birth Control PillsThe Vaginal RingThe “Shot”The PatchIUD54 mm4 mmTalking Points:Only abstinence, and male and female condoms can protect against pregnancy and STDs.These contraceptives shown in the slide work by releasing hormones (the chemical substances that control the functioning of the body's organs) into the bloodstream to prevent pregnancy.Definitions:Birth Control Pills: There are two basic types — combination pills and progestin-only pills. Both are made of hormones like those made by a woman's ovaries, and require a prescription.Vaginal Ring: The vaginal ring is a transparent, flexible ring that a woman inserts into the vagina herself. The vaginal ring stays in the vagina for three weeks, and it releases hormones into the body.The “Shot”: Depo Provera is a hormone injection that lasts for three months. The injection contains hormones. It is usually given in the arm or rear, delivering a high level of progesterone into the body.The Patch: The birth control patch is a thin, beige, square patch that sticks to the skin. It releases hormones through the skin into the bloodstream.IUD: The IUD or intrauterine device is a T-shaped piece of plastic about the size of a quarter that is placed inside the uterus to prevent pregnancy. Two types of IUDs are available—one releases the hormone progesterone, and the other one is covered with copper wire. This type of IUD does not contain hormones.63
64STD Prevention: Condoms and Dental Dams Most effective means of preventing STDs (besides abstinence)To be effective, you must use a new condom EVERY time you have sexFor oral sex, use condoms or dental dams to cover the penis, vagina, or anus
65Barrier Methods Condoms Female condoms (polyurethane) Cervical Cap LatexLambskinPolyurethaneFemale condoms (polyurethane)Cervical CapDiaphragmTalking Points:Condoms: Latex condoms are the best condoms available at the moment. There are three different types of condoms. They can be made from latex (most male condoms are latex), lambskin (some male condoms are made of lambskin), and polyurethane (some male and all female condoms are made of polyurethane). The male latex condom is the best at protecting against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. If you are allergic to latex or would like to use a female condom, you can use a polyurethane condom. Lambskin condoms are not recommended for protecting against STIs.Cervical cap: This is a small latex or silicone cap to be placed over the cervix. Spermicide needs to be added, and a female must be fitted for one.Diaphragm: A diaphragm is a large, latex cap to be placed over the cervix. Spermicide is needed, and a female must be fitted for one.
66Is there a right and wrong way to use a condom? YES!Talking Point: Incorrect use can increase your chances of pregnancy and disease.
67Things to Remember About Condoms Always check the expiration date and look for damage to the wrapper or condom before usingNever use a condom more than onceUsing two condoms at once does not offer increased protectionYou have to use the condom the entire time you have sexTalking Point: Using two condoms at the same time is not recommended for either safer sex or pregnancy prevention. In fact, "double-bagging" can increase the friction between the condoms during intercourse, making them more likely to rip or tear.
68Other Things to Remember About Condoms Do not use oils, lotions, or Vaseline anywhere on the condom (either inside or out)Use lubricants (or lube) specifically designed for use during sex!
69Choosing What Is Right for You Very personal decisionHow well each method will work for you?How effective is it?How will it fit into your lifestyle?What are the side effects?Is it affordable?Remember: oral contraception does not provide STD protection
70What if: Is there anything you can do to prevent pregnancy? The condom breaks?You forgot to take your pill?Sex was forced?Is there anything you can do to prevent pregnancy?
71Emergency Contraception (EC) YES!You can takeEmergency Contraception (EC)Talking Points: What is EC?Also known as “Plan B”, “Back Up Birth Control,” or “the Morning After Pill”Note that this is not an abortion/not the same as RU486Source:
72Emergency Contraception Plan B®Will not work if you’re already pregnantPills you can take up to 5 days after unprotected sexWork best the sooner you take themIf you are >18, you need a prescriptionIf you are 18+, you can get EC over the counterThe Emergency Contraception Hotline:1-888-NOT-2-LATETalking Points:Ask your healthcare provider for a prescription in advance, so that it will be there for you—in time—if you ever need it.Both males and females can get EC at the pharmacy without a prescription if they are 18 or older.
73If you or your partner get pregnant, what are your options? Continue PregnancyAdoptionParenthoodEnd PregnancyAbortionTalking Points:Abortion: Medical procedure that ends a pregnancy. Two types: surgical and medical.If you are a minor and want to have an abortion, a lot of states require you to get permission or tell your parents.It’s helpful to talk to a trained counselor about your decision.It also will probably be helpful to talk to your parents or guardians.