Presentation on theme: "Apetale Bisexuales (Hermaphrodite) It is divided into 4 ORDERs: 1.Piperales 2.Aristolochiales 3.Polygonales 4.centrospermales."— Presentation transcript:
Apetale Bisexuales (Hermaphrodite) It is divided into 4 ORDERs: 1.Piperales 2.Aristolochiales 3.Polygonales 4.centrospermales
Piperales A group of herbs, shrubs, and small trees found primarily in the tropics. Piperales have tiny flowers that have no petals at all The miniscule flowers are densely clustered in long spikes. Many species are aromatic, producing fragrant or spicy smells.
Piperaceae Habit: woody-volubilis ( liana ) plants (herbs, shrubs and small trees) native to tropics. comprising 10 genera and 1,400 to 2,000 species. Leaves: entire, single, alternate or rarely opposite or whorled, Inflorescence: rat-tail like spikes. Flower: bisexual, or less commonly unisexual, minute, lack perianth (apetalous. ) Fruit: berry or drupe. Other: they have secretary tissues consist of cells containing volatile oil
Piper nigrum L. Habit: herbaceous woody-volubilis liana, native to tropics Leaves: entire, ovate, single, alternate, petiolate, acuminate Inflorescence : spicum, opposite with leaves Flower: apetalous, bractate Fruit: bacca
The immature fruits of Piper nigrum
Nearly ripe fruits of Piper nigrum
Piper cubeba L. The dried cubeb berries contain essential oil consisting monoterpenes (sabinene 50% and α- thujene) and sesquiterpenes (caryophyllene, α- and β-cubebene, cadinene), the oxides 1,4- and 1,8- cineole and cubebol monoterpenes sesquiterpenes cineole
Piper mythysticum( Kava ) Habit: shrub, with fleshy erect stem Leaves: flate, petiolate, cordate at the base and acuminate at the tip Inflorescence: spicum Fruit: bacca
ORDER Aristolochiales There are about 600 to 700 species, most of them in the genus Aristolochia ( 500 spp.), and most of the rest in Asarum ( 100 spp.). They may grow as climbing vines, as short creeping herbs, and a few are shrub-like. Members of this group have attractive leaves and flowers,
Aristolochiaceae Habit: perennial Shrubs, or lianas, or herbs Leaves: simple, entire (usually), or dissected; alternate, spiral, flat, petiolate, aromatic, Flowers: solitary, or aggregated, small to large, regular to very irregular, tricyclic to pentacyclic. Fruit: a capsule (usually), or a berry, or a nut.
Aristolochia clematitis Is a herbaceous plant, which is native to Europe. The leaves are heart shaped and the flowers are pale yellow and tubular in form.herbaceous
Asarum europaeum ( Asarum officinale ) Its leaves are aromatic and kidney-shaped, flowers are dark-red colored, and fruit is capsule
In this order, plants have flowers with simple perianth, trimerous to pentamerous Here polygonaceae is prominent.
Polygonaceae It has 46 genera, 1100 species. Habit: herbaceous, annual or perennial, to shrubs, trees or vines often with swollen nodes Leaves: simple, alternate, often with membranous, sheathing stipule (ochrea) Flower: Mostly perfect, actinomorphic, petaloid, distinct to connate Ovary: superior, tricarpellate, unilocular with a single seed Fruit: achena,
Rheum palmatum L., رواش ( Chinese rhubarb) or Rheum officinale Habit: Perennial, with large fleshy roots, about 2 to 3 feet Leaves: 5 to7 lobed, large with long, thick, often reddish petiole, Flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by Wind.
Rheum palmatum L. The most common medicinal use of this plant is as a laxative in humans.
opuntia vulgarisزبان خشو, Aphyllus woody plant, 1 to 1.5m tall, fleshy stem is consist of flat-ovate nodes equipped by thorny structures
opuntia vulgaris Flowers are yellow colored, solitary, appear at the edge of upper fleshy nodes; have many sepals, petals and stamens
opuntia vulgaris Berries are fleshy, ovate and reddish- orange colored.
Caryophyllaceae Herbaceous plants with swollen nodes Leaves: –Opposite, simple, narrow with entire margins –Bases of paired leaves often connected Inflorescence –Cymose or solitary –Usually terminal Flowers: –Perfect, hypogynous –Frequently showy
Caryophyllaceae Calyx: –5 (4), distinct or connate –Often persistent Corolla: –5 (4), sometimes none –White or pink –Often notched at apex, with claw and limb form Stamens: –1 or 2 whorls of 5, distinct, often basally adnate Gynoecium: –1 pistil, 2- to 5-carpellate –Locules 1 (1-5 at base), styles 2 to 5 –Ovules numerous (few), placentation free-central and axile below
Caryophyllaceae Fruit: –Usually a capsule dehiscing by apical teeth, or a utricle –Seed an embryo curved around perisperm Distribution: –North-temperate & arctic, Mediterranean Examples: –Dianthus (carnation)
Saponaria officinalis عشقار, A member of caryophylace ae, is a large perennial herb, with erect, branched stem risen from rhizome
Saponaria officinalis Leaves: opposite, acuminate, dark-green colored and have 3 prominent veins
Saponaria officinalis Flower: aromatic, pale pink colored, located in terminal, branched cymes