Presentation on theme: "Level II Agricultural Business Operations. Scale proposed by the Dutch phytopathologist, Jan C. Zadoks Know as Zadoks scale, it gives the plant a."— Presentation transcript:
Level II Agricultural Business Operations
Scale proposed by the Dutch phytopathologist, Jan C. Zadoks Know as Zadoks scale, it gives the plant a figure based on the current growth stage of the plant. Scales goes from
Knowing the stages of development of a crop is critical in many management decisions that growers make. Eg, Nitrogen application GS21 Herbicide application GS11 Fungicide application GS32 Growth regulatorGS32
GS 31 GS 39 GS 61 Harvest SlowRapidSlow 40 % of total N uptake in 4 weeks 17 % of total N uptake
T1, T2 & T3 are linked to timing of fungicide spraying. T1 is generally GS T2 is GS 39 T3 is a ear wash at GS 65 Some other T values have been developing e.g. T0.5, T1.5 etc. Becoming more popular in NI
Link from HGCA website. cereals-growth-stages-a-guide-for-crop- treatments.pdf cereals-growth-stages-a-guide-for-crop- treatments.pdf
GS10 First leaf through coleoptile GS11 First leaf unfolded (ligule visible) GS leaves unfolded GS leaves unfolded GS or more leaves unfolded
GS20 Main shoot only GS21 Main shoot and 1 tiller GS23 Main shoot and 3 tillers GS25 Main shoot and 5 tillers GS29 Main shoot and 9 or more tillers
GS30 Ear at 1cm (pseudostem erect) GS31 First node detectable GS32 Second node detectable GS33 Third node detectable GS37 Flag leaf just visible GS39 Flag leaf blade all visible
Very Important Period ◦ Fungicide Timing ◦ Growth regulator
For a quick, but crude assessment, fold back the leaf sheaths then count the slight 'bumps' caused by each node. The exact stage is revealed by stripping off leaves and cutting the main stem longitudinally with a sharp knife.
GS41 Flag leaf sheath extending GS43 Flag leaf sheath just visibly swollen GS45 Flag leaf sheath swollen GS47 Flag leaf sheath opening GS49 First awns visible (if an awned variety) Barley only
GS51 First spikelet of ear just visible above flag leaf ligule GS55 Half of ear emerged above flag leaf ligule GS59 Ear completely emerged above flag leaf ligule
GS71 Grain watery ripe GS73 Early milk GS75 Medium milk GS77 Late milk
GS83 Early dough GS85 Soft dough GS87 Hard dough (thumbnail impression held)
GS91 Grain hard (difficult to divide) GS92 Grain hard (not dented by thumbnail) GS93 Grain loosening in daytime
Correct timing of sprays and fertiliser treatments is critical to success in growing cereals. Many instructions and guides state ‘Apply at GSXX.”
Take 5-10 typical plants from across the field, ideally digging them up rather than pulling up to avoid damaging stems and leaves.
Knowing the growth stage is important to ensure that timing of pesticides are applied in line with manufactures recommendations. Correct timing can have a bigger impact on crop response/performance than product type!