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Level II Agricultural Business Operations.  Scale proposed by the Dutch phytopathologist, Jan C. Zadoks  Know as Zadoks scale, it gives the plant a.

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Presentation on theme: "Level II Agricultural Business Operations.  Scale proposed by the Dutch phytopathologist, Jan C. Zadoks  Know as Zadoks scale, it gives the plant a."— Presentation transcript:

1 Level II Agricultural Business Operations

2  Scale proposed by the Dutch phytopathologist, Jan C. Zadoks  Know as Zadoks scale, it gives the plant a figure based on the current growth stage of the plant.  Scales goes from

3  Knowing the stages of development of a crop is critical in many management decisions that growers make.  Eg, Nitrogen application GS21 Herbicide application GS11 Fungicide application GS32 Growth regulatorGS32

4 GS 31 GS 39 GS 61 Harvest SlowRapidSlow 40 % of total N uptake in 4 weeks 17 % of total N uptake

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7  T1, T2 & T3 are linked to timing of fungicide spraying.  T1 is generally GS  T2 is GS 39  T3 is a ear wash at GS 65  Some other T values have been developing e.g. T0.5, T1.5 etc. Becoming more popular in NI

8  Link from HGCA website.  cereals-growth-stages-a-guide-for-crop- treatments.pdf cereals-growth-stages-a-guide-for-crop- treatments.pdf

9  Seedling Growth11-19  Tillering20-29  Stem Elongation30-39  Booting41-49  Ear Emergence51-59  Flowering61-69  Milk Development71-79  Dough Development81-89  Ripening91-99

10 GS10 First leaf through coleoptile GS11 First leaf unfolded (ligule visible) GS leaves unfolded GS leaves unfolded GS or more leaves unfolded

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13  GS20 Main shoot only  GS21 Main shoot and 1 tiller  GS23 Main shoot and 3 tillers  GS25 Main shoot and 5 tillers  GS29 Main shoot and 9 or more tillers

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15  GS30 Ear at 1cm (pseudostem erect)  GS31 First node detectable  GS32 Second node detectable  GS33 Third node detectable  GS37 Flag leaf just visible  GS39 Flag leaf blade all visible

16  Very Important Period ◦ Fungicide Timing ◦ Growth regulator

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19  For a quick, but crude assessment, fold back the leaf sheaths then count the slight 'bumps' caused by each node.  The exact stage is revealed by stripping off leaves and cutting the main stem longitudinally with a sharp knife.

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21  GS41 Flag leaf sheath extending  GS43 Flag leaf sheath just visibly swollen  GS45 Flag leaf sheath swollen  GS47 Flag leaf sheath opening  GS49 First awns visible (if an awned variety) Barley only

22  GS51 First spikelet of ear just visible above flag leaf ligule  GS55 Half of ear emerged above flag leaf ligule  GS59 Ear completely emerged above flag leaf ligule

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24  GS61 Start of flowering  GS65 Flowering half-way  GS69 Flowering complete

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26  GS71 Grain watery ripe  GS73 Early milk  GS75 Medium milk  GS77 Late milk

27  GS83 Early dough  GS85 Soft dough  GS87 Hard dough (thumbnail impression held)

28  GS91 Grain hard (difficult to divide)  GS92 Grain hard (not dented by thumbnail)  GS93 Grain loosening in daytime

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30  Correct timing of sprays and fertiliser treatments is critical to success in growing cereals.  Many instructions and guides state ‘Apply at GSXX.”

31  Take 5-10 typical plants from across the field, ideally digging them up rather than pulling up to avoid damaging stems and leaves.

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33  Knowing the growth stage is important to ensure that timing of pesticides are applied in line with manufactures recommendations.  Correct timing can have a bigger impact on crop response/performance than product type!


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