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Construction and Structures 2

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1 Construction and Structures 2
Project 1 GROUP MEMBERS Brad Wheeler Jonathon Stiberc Jesse Campbell Dusan Bijelic Alex Williamson

2 Contents Lighting of warehouse Portal Frames
Construction process of the panels Roofing (Warehouse) Member Sizes (Warehouse) SHOWROOM-Mezzanine Flooring Glass and glazing Roofing (Showroom/Office) Member sizes (Showroom/Office) Site Works References Portal Frames Make-up of Portal Frames Portal Frame connections Comparison of Portal Frame connections Bracing Systems Pre-cast Concrete Tilt-up Concrete Envelope Systems Design constraints and considerations WAREHOUSE-General Info. Why we chose pre-cast concrete

3 Introduction In forming the construction of industrial or commercial buildings many issues can arise. Significant amounts of research need to be done before the construction begins. What is the facility going to be used for? What is the facility going to be made from? Does the design fit the look the client is after? These are just some of the different issues that have to be addressed. The following slides show some options that are on offer to fit the requirements of this assignment including a critical review of structural systems and construction processes. <<Previous Home Next>>

4 Portal Frames A portal frame can be defined as “a continuous rigid frame with a restrained joint between the column and beam” (Jeremy Ham, Lecture 1 Portal Frames). In the early days, portal frames were not used. Steel framed construction consisted of a column and truss configuration. Due to rising labour costs, the portal frame design was adopted being particularly economical in spanning ranges from 15 to 45m. A column and truss arrangement has a much smaller mass comparison to the portal frame, but when the bigger picture is considered like fabrication, erection, and the relative ease of the work to erect the portal frame, it’s not hard to see that it is the preferred system. More recently advances have been made in the development and use of timber portal frames, which can now span very long lengths. Timber is a much lighter option and cheaper in terms of cost and labour, but does not offer the same strength as steel. <<Previous Home Next>>

5 Make-up of Portal Frame
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6 Types of Portal Frames The types of portal frame systems that are available include: -One-way Rigid/Braced Framework -Two-way Rigid/Braced Framework ONE-WAY RIGID/BRACED FRAMEWORK One way rigid framework is a very popular form of a framework throughout the industry. One way rigid framing is generally suitable to most types of structural work such as Low rise, Rectangular, Industrial and Architectural. This particular type of framework is a cost effective and a viable option to many as it embraces many advantages, such as simple connection methods, the use of “I” columns, plastic design methods and continuos beam design. Types of arched portal frame options are available such as three pin (pin joints at column bases and crown (apex), two pin (pin joints at either supports (columns) or rigid frame (rigid joints, bending occurs in columns of the frame). <<Previous Home Next>>

7 Types of Portal Frames cont.
Bracing occurs along the planes of the structure, different forms of cross bracing help distribute lateral forces such as wind loads, along the unbraced plane the rigid frame helps resist lateral forces. Overall very few disadvantages are evident in this form of framework though the fact that the unbraced plane heavily relies on rigid connections, thus making it not as strong as the braced plane evidently. Also the fact that areas must be reserved for stabilizing elements can ultimately restrict the layout or design of structure. TWO-WAY RIGID/BRACED FORMWORK In comparison to the One-way rigid there is more freedom in terms of planning, Two-way rigid is suitable for most structures and applied to types of framing such as Multi-story, Low-rise, Industrial and Architectural. Unlike One-way rigid framework Two-way has the ability to resist lateral forces without the need for any stabilising elements. The type of frame work is seemingly economic though the fact there are more connections there are more thus increasing expenses. <<Previous Home Next>>

8 Types of Portal Frames cont.
A major advantage as stated previously is the fact of flexibility in terms for planning and the ability to decrease the size of certain members throughout the structure due to more fixings. Though overall one negative tends to cancel another out and it is evident that it will even out in terms of costs. Unlike rigid Two-way Braced framing employs and relies on the use of stabilising elements, therefore any lateral forces from any course can be resisted. Beams are connected using flexible connections but are pin ended. Two way braced framework uses a simple connection method thus making it more cost effective in comparison to Two-way rigid framing system. The Two-way braced framing system can be applied to Low-rise and Medium-rise rectangular frame works. <<Previous Home Next>>

9 Portal Frame Connections
The three types of portal frame connections include: Two pinned Three pinned Rigid TWO-PINNED Two-pinned portal frames have a two bolt connection to the footing which allows loads to be transferred directly through to the soil. Two-pinned portals have a rigid connection at the apex and pin joints at the knees. The maximum bending occurs at the apex and knees of the portal frame. THREE-PINNED Three-pined portal frames like the two-pinned portal frames have a two bolt connection to the footing, allowing loads to be transferred directly to the soil. Three-pinned portals have pin joints at the apex and knees. In the three-pinned portal maximum bending occurs at the knees. <<Previous Home Next>>

10 Portal Frame Connections cont.
RIGID Unlike the two and three-pinned portal frames, the rigid base portal frames’ are connected to the footing via four bolts. For the rigid frame to be effective these four bolts have to spaced as far away from the centre line of the column as possible. This forms a more rigid connection at the base allowing the loads to be transferred throughout the footing and then to the soil, rather than directly to the soil. Bending in the rigid frame occurs at all connections. <<Previous Home Next>> Rigid Connection Pin Connection Source: Jeremy Ham, Lecture 1 Portal Frames Bolts

11 Comparison of Portal Frame Connections
There are a few differences that occur between both pin and rigid based connections. The of the main differences is the flow of load through the framework. This means that the pin based connections allows for a smaller and simpler footing as the load is transferred straight into the soil. This could be seen as one of the disadvantages of the rigid based connection, that is that more concrete is required for the footing. One of the other advantages of using the pin-based connection is that it can be used when the soil conditions under the structure are poor. This is because the footings are smaller and are less effected by ground movement. However nowadays the pin-based connections is used less frequently as the rigid form. <<Previous Home Next>>

12 Bracing Systems To make the portal frame stronger and more rigid different types of bracing methods are used. For buildings less than 60m, generally the bay on each end of the portal frame is braced to stabilise the structure. Sometimes only one end is braced, but this means longitudinal eaves and ridge struts are required. Wind forces on the end that isn’t braced have to be transferred through the building length. Economically, bracing each end of the frame is a better option. Source: Alex Williamson, 2004 <<Previous Home Next>>

13 Pre-Cast Concrete Pre-cast concrete is an alternative form of construction where no framing systems are required. The Pre-cast concrete panels are created off site in a factory and are designed and built to the engineers specifications. When cured, the concrete is then transported to site and put into position with the aid of cranes and other various lifting aids. There can be seen to be many advantages associated with using pre-cast panels. Some of these advantages include: Strength: Pre-cast panels are very strong and hard to break. Durability: They are very durable and last a long time before deforming. Acoustics: Are effective when it comes to stropping sound transmission. In the case of this warehouse assignment the panels would work well to stop noise being transmitted between the warehouse and the showroom. Time: The pre-cast panels can be installed very quickly and can be seen to be a lot quicker to install than the tilt-up methods. Ease of installation: By using cranes the pre-cast panels are easily installed. Accuracy: The panels are very accurate as they are made to the size and specifications of the engineer. <<Previous Home Next>>

14 Pre-Cast Concrete cont.
Aesthetics: The look of the panels can be changed to meet the clients demands by either painting or rendering the panel. Availability: As they are a widely used product, not only in commercial construction but also residential construction they are readily available. Water resistance: They are very waterproof and weather resistant. Low Maintenance: Once installed and given coat of paint no other maintenance is required. Source: Jeremy Ham, Lecture notes: Tilt-up. This photo shows the cranes lifting the pre-cast panel into position ready for fixing. <<Previous Home Next>>

15 Pre-Cast Concrete cont.
Once erected the pre-cast panels can then be connected to the structural members of the roof. The rafters (universal beams) can be connected to the pre-cast panels by two methods. They are welding or bolting. The rafters cannot be directly connected to the concrete itself, so a steel plate is cast into the panel, (as seen in the picture below). Connection plate in the panel. In the rafter is both bolted and welded to the panel. Source: Alex Williamson, 2004 <<Previous Home Next>>

16 Pre-cast connections Connection plate between two concrete panels.
Source: Alex Williamson 2004 Connection plate between internal load bearing walls Source: Alex Williamson 2004 <<Previous Home Next>>

17 Tilt-Up Concrete Tilt-up is one of the most advanced construction methods and it can be used in almost every situation from warehouse facilities to domestic homes. Tilt-up concrete construction is not new; it has been in use since the turn of the century. Since the mid-1940s it has developed into the preferred method of construction for many types of buildings and structures. They are attractive, efficient and long lasting. Damage to a concrete building from a truck or fork-lift is minimal compared to metal or wood buildings which usually sustain substantial damage from similar incidents. Fire resistance of concrete can extend the building's life, plus tilt-up panels may be used for the interior fire walls, and buildings may be spaced closer together if necessary. <<Previous Home Next>>

18 Tilt-Up Concrete cont. Tilt-up concrete is known for its fast track methods as it provides Design and Build system for your project where building construction proceeds while the design is developed, speeding completion. This allows the wall panels to be completed while the rest of the building is designed. Many phases are completed simultaneously; therefore it allows you to occupy the building sooner. Due to the floor slab being poured first, the other trades can work sooner and in a better work environment, which saves time and money. Another one of little but affective advantages is the insurance premium as it will be to be lower compared to other structures, as tilt-up construction is considered more reliable than steel or timber structures. Tilt-up concrete building will require less maintenance. The exterior can be left unpainted with no damage from the elements. If painting is desired, it needs to be re-painted only every five to ten years. Concrete interiors are less subject to damage, and easier to wash down. <<Previous Home Next>>

19 Tilt-Up Concrete cont. The formwork for the tilt-up
Source: Alex Williamson, 2004 Source: Alex Williamson, 2004 The concrete setting inside the mould (formwork). Stack casting, possibly three high. <<Previous Home Next>>

20 Envelope Systems When talking about the envelope system, “the walls act as a selective filter between the uncontrolled exterior environment and the controlled interior environment” (Jeremy Ham, Lecture notes: Envelope Systems, 2003). Essentially building envelopes are the mediators between outdoor and indoor environments. As such, and depending on their characteristics, they play a key role in determining the amount of heat loss and gain to and from an indoor space, and consequently, play a major role in influencing the amount of energy used to achieve the desired indoor thermal comfort ranges. The building envelope acts like the skin of the building and includes the walls, roof, windows and doors. In the coastal climatic zone the dominant energy requirement is for cooling. The energy conservation strategy should be to reduce summer heat gains. In the medium and high mountainous climatic zones, the energy requirement is for heating. The energy conservation strategy should be to reduce heat loss to the outside. <<Previous Home Next>>

21 Envelope Systems cont. When deciding on the building envelope you must take into consideration what the eventual use of the building is and what equipment is to be stored in the building. Considerations include the value of the materials and also the mode of transport in and around the building. In the majority of cases forklifts are used in the warehouse to transport stock therefore a solid envelope is required for the bottom 2-3 metres. Generally this is due to ‘crazy’ forklift drivers and possibly truck drivers having to back semi trailers into and out of the building. Damage can be done to sheet metal easily and Is quite expensive to repair. Theft is a major problem in industrial areas and must be considered when deciding on the envelope. In many cases concrete panels are used in the entire envelope system to prevent wood be thief’s cutting holes in the sheet metal. <<Previous Home Next>>

22 Design constraints and considerations
Upon designing the warehouse and the showroom certain considerations had to be made. The major areas that had to be considered in the design and had to comply with certain standards included: Health and Amenities Fire Resistance/fire proofing Exits Service and Equipment HEALTH AND AMENTITIES Sanitary and other facilities: We worked out that the warehouse and showroom together would have to be able accommodate up to 30 employees, roughly 15 of both male and female. Therefore this number would determine the number of toilets and washbasins etc.. In order to fully service the warehouse and showroom, 6 closet pans, 2 urinals and 3 washbasins would be required. <<Previous Home Next>>

23 Design constraints and considerations cont.
Light and ventilation: The area of lighting can be broken up into both natural and artificial lighting. Natural lighting can be achieved by using skylights (eg. Laserlite) in the roof. In domestic buildings the minimum amount of light to fulfil regulations is 10% of the floor area, however in commercial buildings, eg. The warehouse, according to regulations no Light is required. Light is required in the showroom. Ventilation is not required for commercial buildings, but because of the nature of the warehouse, gas powered forklifts may be used and therefore the warehouse will need to be ventilated to get rid of the fumes. Vent ridges will be used. Sound insulation: Between the warehouse and the showroom should not be too much of a problem as the pre-cast concrete panels are good insulators of sound. <<Previous Home Next>>

24 Design constraints and considerations cont.
FIRE RESISTANCE/FIRE PROOFING Fire proofing is a major consideration when designing both the warehouse and the Showroom. Because the two areas are considered as separate components fire proofing of the openings is required. For the door that connects the warehouse and the showroom a 2 hour FR (fire rated) door will be used. For the window above that door a sprinkler system will be used to stop the spread of any fire. EXITS An exit can be defined as an opening in the warehouse or showroom that allows people to evacuate the building in case of an emergency, freely and safely. The travel distance between exits can be no more than 20 metres from any point in the warehouse. Therefore for our warehouse design, 8 exit doors are required to fulfil this requirement. <<Previous Home Next>>

25 Design constraints and considerations cont.
SERVICES AND EQUIPMENT Exit signs: Exit signs are to be installed above all exits, and according to regulations must be clearly visible to people approaching or using the exit. Fire Hoses/Fire Hydrants: A fire hose and hydrant must be provided within the warehouse to service the whole building. Therefore roughly two hose reels and hydrants would be sufficient. <<Previous Home Next>>

26 WAREHOUSE Plans <<Previous Home Next>>

27 General Information Property location: 3 Grunge Street, Geelong
The warehouse is 1600 sq.m. (40 * 40 metres) The pre-cast concrete panels are 8m long, 8m high and 200 mm thick All panels are load-bearing All up 20 pre-cast panels will be required for the job Doors for the truck entrance/exit are 5m long by 4.5m high These doors are aluminium roller doors The pallets inside the warehouse measure 1.1m * 1.1m. These pallets are stacked 5 high. The width of the rows between the pallets shall be 2m , in order to accommodate for the forklift. The roof pitch of the warehouse is 3 degrees. <<Previous Home Next>>

28 Why we chose Pre-cast Building is all about time and money and that was the main influence in the decision to build using pre-cast concrete panels. Load bearing panels compared to non load bearing panels are more expensive. Non load bearing panels are $100 – $120 m² compared to $120 - $200 m² for load bearing panels. The difference in price can be made up in the fact that you only need structural steel members for the roof. Panels can be erected in one week by one team. This saves money and time, by having a crane on site for only a week compared to 2-3 weeks for other construction methods can save thousands and also means the tenants can occupy the building sooner. Load bearing pre-cast panels also distribute the load evenly. Rather than having the load directed at a single point load (base of column) it is spread over the length of the pre-cast panel. Also by having a panelling as your total cladding system it reduces the need for further bracing. <<Previous Home Next>>

29 Why we chose Pre-cast Pre-cast panels also contribute to the security of the assets kept within the warehouse which in our eyes opens up the opportunity to have several clients bidding for the space available and increase the renting price. The targeted tenants would be electric retail stores (e.g. Dick Smith, Harvey Norman, The Good Guys etc.) or clothing companies (e.g. Rip Curl, Cotton On, Quicksilver etc.). We believe that the development which posses appealing looks and great security will be extremely popular within the market of not so aesthetic industrial area. It will be different and will become more appealing to potential investors, and their future clients. <<Previous Home Next>>

30 Lighting of the warehouse
Artificial Lighting When designing and choosing the lighting for the warehouse you must take into consideration both finance and health risks. It is commonly known that the inappropriate amount of light can lead to low productivity but it can also cause SAD seasonal affective disorder, this is a form of depression. This can be helped being exposed to high levels of light, approximately 2500 lux to 10,000 lux for up to 2-4 hours a day. The highest priority for most buildings is simply the cost, both for purchase and running costs, and longevity of the product. With all these considerations taken into account Compact Fluorescent where chosen these lamps provide cost savings, long life, high light output, excellent colour rendering, and indoor or outdoor options. <<Previous Home Next>>

31 Construction Process of Panels
Clear site and set up for the slab Prepare and pour edge beams Pour slab, and let procurement occur for up to a week Truck in engineered precast panels, and sit into place with a cranage team Use bracing to hold up each panel until gradually you work you way around the entire building Grout is used as a bonding agent to secure the panels to the floor Welding plates are used to secure the panels to each other Roofing beams are bolted to brackets which have been set in at the appropriate places on the panels. Each beam that is secured across the structure stabilises the structure even more. Once roof structure is in place guttering can be set in place and drainage secured Only when the roof support is in place can the bracing for the panels be removed Sheet iron is generally used as roof cladding Once the roof is in place electrical work can begin Offices can begin to be fitted out (suspended ceiling, air ducts, plumbing etc.) Doors and windows are put into place soon after to bring the building to lock up. <<Previous Home Next>>

32 Drawings + sketches Slab and edge beam Elevation (side)
200 Slab and edge beam Elevation (side) 150 150 300 <<Previous Home Next>>

33 Drawings + sketches <<Previous Home Next>> Plan View
Mesh to keep out birds etc.. Vent Ridge Elevation Rain Head <<Previous Home Next>>

34 CAD Model Sarking Pre-cast Sheet roofing 460UB Slab
CAD done by Jesse Douglas Campbell. Purlins <<Previous Home Next>>

35 Roofing <<Previous Home Next>>
The first part of the roof that had to be established was the beams. We found that 460UB 16mm thick was able to span the required distance. The beams were spaced at eight meters, creating five bays per side in the roof, and creating a roof pitch at 3 degrees. We chose 150x50 “C-purlins” for extra strength. The purlins span eight meters and were butt joined at the cleats welded to the top of the beams. These types of purlins had to be spaced at maximum 1200c/s. Our purlins are spaced at 1125c/s, but only one meter from the apex and the pre-cast panel for extra support at the ends. Fire rated foil and mesh were placed on the top of the purlins. We chose trim deck roofing because of its spaning capacity and availability. Wonder-glass (fluro) was chosen as the skylight as it let in the most natural light, reducing artificial lighting costs. The use of 65mm wether lock washes was required on the wonder-glass. One meter of trim-deck was placed at the ends of the wonder-glass for extra fire proofing. Box gutters are 100mm deep 600 wide. A 100mm sump was placed in the middle of each bay, allowing the water to be caught and transported to the 150mm PVC storm water pipes connected to the bottom of the beams. Flashing is placed over the top of the pre-cast to the box gutter with anti-capillary walls stopping the water from getting inside. <<Previous Home Next>>

36 Member Sizes (rules of thumb)
Pre-cast load bearing panels 200mm thick 8m long * 8m high Beams (Rafters) 460 UB 20m span 8m spacing Purlins 150mm * 50mm * 4mm 8m span 1.125m spacing Doors (fireproof) 2040mm*950mm Roller Doors 5m * 4.5m Safety Mesh 2mm Fire rated Sarking Roof Sheeting 760mm covering 800mm wide 20m span <<Previous Home Next>>

37 SHOWROOM PLANS <<Previous Home Next>>

38 Mezzanine Floor Ultimately we opted for the Duragal Mezzanine Flooring System; it was a simple but effective approach to flooring systems in our office. Access to the second floor is via a ramp at an incline of 6.6° as opposed to the use of a staircase, this therefore enabled disabled access to the second floor without having to install a lift or a wheelchair elevator in the staircase. The Duragal Mezzanine Flooring System is able to be installed on site without the need for any welding. Each lightweight member has a cleaned surface and is specially coated (galvanized). The Duragal Flooring System is specially suited to indoor usage and members have reasonably large spans thus decreasing the amount of materials. Generally the fact it embodies a high tensile strength and is also lightweight it became an appealing option of a flooring system for our office. <<Previous Home Next>>

39 Mezzanine Floor cont. Members 5kPa Floor; Bearers: Continuos Span 2/300x90 & 8mm thick Span: 5m Spacing: 5m Joists: Continuos Span, 150 x 50 & 5mm thick Spacing: 600mm Columns: Sizes: 89x89x2.7 Bracing: Knee Bracing Overall the Mezzanine Flooring System was a viable and cost effective flooring system for our office. It is simple to install, durable and lightweight. The flooring can be installed on site and fits well inside out office space. Plaster covers our walls thus hiding the framing which may not look so appealing in our showroom. <<Previous Home Next>>

40 Glass + Glazing Glazing
Manufacturers usually represent the energy efficiency of windows in terms of there U-values (conduction of heat) or there R-values (resistance of heat). High R-value means low heat loss and high U-value means it has a high heat loss. There are several types of coatings of glazing: Low-e glazing: Coatings are thin and reduce heat transfer through windows. Spectrally selective coating: Next generation of low-e technologies. These coatings filter out 40% - 70% of heat normally transmitted through the glass. Heat Absorbing Glazing: Another technology uses heat-absorbing glazing with tinted coatings to absorb solar heat gain. Some heat, however, continues to pass through tinted windows by conduction and radiation. Reflective coatings: Like black-tinted coatings, reflective coatings greatly reduce the transmission of daylight through clear glass. Although they typically block more light than heat <<Previous Home Next>>

41 Glass + Glazing cont. Glass
The glass chosen was 6mm laminated glass in light weight aluminium sections, the price of this glass is approximately $273 m2. The reason for this choice is simply that it was the cheapest, and most practical. They are commonly used therefore there will be no trouble with the order and delivery. <<Previous Home Next>>

42 Roofing In the roof for the offices/showrooms, for simplicity we used the same 460UB 16mm thick with the flanges 190mm wide. The beams in the office/showroom are on the same pitch (3º) as the warehouse and are spanning the same distance as on the warehouse, however, on the office/showroom the beams are spaced at 5m c/s and the roof is skillion sloping towards the warehouse instead of pitched. The 5m spacing created of the beams created 4 bays in the roof. ‘C-purlins’ 150x50mm were used on the skillion roof spaced at 1000mm. The spanning of the purlins was 5m and butt together at the cleats fabricated on the beams. Safety mesh and fire-proofed sarking was laid on top of the purlins and roof sheeting was fixed. The roofing chosen for the skillion roof was clip-lock roofing. This material was chosen because of its ease of connection along with its availability. 12x45mm text screws were used to fix the sheeting with neo washers used to seal between the screw and the sheet. The same box guttering used in the warehouse was used in the office/showroom (100x600mm). A 100mm deep sump was placed in each bay to catch the storm water and be taken out of the facility. <<Previous Home Next>>

43 Member Sizes (rules of thumb)
Beams/Rafters – 460UB, 190 Flange, 16mm steel Purlins ‘C-section’ – 150x50x3mm thick Load Bearing Precast Concrete Panels – 200mm thick Wall Studs – 90mm steel Duragal: Columns – 89x89x3mm thick Bearers – 2/300x90x8mm thick Joists – 150x50x5mm thick - Doors: Fire Rated – 950x2040mm Other – 820x2040mm <<Previous Home Next>>

The site is located at 3 Grunge rd in Geelong’s industrial area. It spreads over 9,406m². The ground has almost a 6m slope over the 80m of its width. The site can be accessed via the entry that runs off the main road leading towards the concreted driveway that leads clients to the car parks, warehouse, showroom, and the offices. There will be 14 car parks including one disabled car park. The car park dimensions are 2.6x5.4m and the disabled car park is 3.2x5.4m. There will be a turnaround that assists the truck drivers while reversing their trucks into the warehouse so that they can be loaded or unloaded. The ground will be excavated until the same level is achieved across the whole site. For the area the warehouse covers, roughly 2000m³ of soil has to be excavated over the 40m length of the warehouse. For the outside area of the site grass, trees and plants will be used for landscaping. <<Previous Home Next>>

45 Site Works EXCAVATION Excavation can range from being a quite simple task to very difficult depending on the circumstances, before any site works can take place soil testing is required. The site is cleared and levelled, in some cases further digging is needed for basements. Work is done to prepare for the slab or strip footings. All excess material (eg. Rubbish, excess soil) is trucked off site. <<Previous Home Next>>

46 References <<Previous Home
Economical Structural Steelwork 4th edition, Australian Institute of Steel Construction Construction And Structures 2 Reader, Jeremy j. Ham, Deakin University School of Architecture and Building,2004 Ham, Jeremy J, Lecture: Portal Frames, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia, 2004. Ham, Jeremy J, Lecture: Tilt-up, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia, 2004. Ham, Jeremy J, Lecture: Envelope Systems, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia, 2003. (Unknown 2004) (Unknown 2004) (Unknown 2004) (Unknown 2004) (Unknown 2004) (Unknown 2004) Building Code of Australia (BCA ) Volume 1 <<Previous Home

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