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Diversity in the plant kingdom © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Bryophyta Small terrestrial plants restricted to damp habitats Water is needed for fertilisation Spores ensure dispersal © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Bryophyta Hepaticae the liverworts Prostrate thallus with rhizoids © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Bryophyta Musci the mosses Erect stem with leaflets +/- rhizoids © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Filicinophyta the ferns Water still needed for fertilisation Spores ensure dispersal Vascular plants Lignified tissue (wood) may be present Differentiated into: leaves, stem, roots, rhizome © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Coniferophyta the conifers Vascular plants Seed plants Seeds contain a food store for an embryo inside protective coat Seeds ensure dispersal Naked seeds born in cones © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Coniferophyta Araucaria sp. (Monkey-puzzle)
Angiospermophyta the flowering plants Vascular plants Seed plants Seeds protected by an ovary which becomes a fruit Fruit, a structure that encourages seed dispersal © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Summary FeatureBryophytaFilicinophytaConiferophytaAngiospermophyta Common name MossesFernsConifersFlowering plants LeavesScalesYes RootsRhizoidsYes Vascular system NoYes Woody tissue SmallYes Waxy cuticle Damp habitats Yes Water for fertilisation Yes No SeedsNo Yes ConesNo YesNo FruitNo Yes © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Dicotyledons & Monocotyledons Angiosperms are divided into two groups The basic distinguishing feature are embryonic leaves (coytledons) Cotyledons are found in the seeds of these plants © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Dicotyledon seed Seed coat or testa Cotyledons acting as a food reserve Plumule (to become the first true leaf) Radicle (to become the first root) Micropyle © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Monocotyledon seed Seed coat Cotyledon Plumule Radicle Endosperm (food reserve) © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Dicots v Monocots – other differences DicotyledonsMonocotyledons Tap roots and lateral branches Fibrous adventitious roots Net-veined leavesParallel-veined leaves © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
DicotyledonsMonocotyledons Vascular tissue in a ring round the stem Vascular tissue scattered throughout stem Flowers with multiples of 4 or 5 organs Flowers with multiples of 3 organs Dicots v Monocots – other differences Vascular tissue Pith Epidermis Cortex Vascular tissue © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
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