4 Before Orchid Fossils Freudenstein and Rasmussen (1999) What does morphology tell us about orchid relationships? – A cladistic analysis.Compared 54 morphological characters and 103 taxaExcluded 10 previously studied charactersUsed Hypoxis as the outgroupUsed genotype level correction (generic exemplar approach) for missing characters unless a known polymorphism was presentAnalyzed for shortest trees and trees with highest fitness
10 The First Orchid Fossil Ramirez et al (2007)Dating the origin of the Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator.Discovered in Dominican Republic in 2000Aged the amber as per Iturralde-Vinent (1996) at MyrUsed morphological characteristics of pollinarium to identify potential taxaCompared 129 shortest trees for cladistic positionCompared 25 morphological traits and 15 taxaNPRS and PL for aging lineageGenbank plastid DNA sequences for 60 generaUsed Asparagales as the outgroup
18 The Oldest Orchid Fossils Conran et al. (2009)Earliest orchid marcrofossils: Early Miocene Dendrobium and Earina (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae) from New Zealand.Discovered in New Zealand in diatomite from a mineAged the fossils using spore and pollen data located in surrounding sediments as per Bannister et al. (2005)Used morphological characteristics of leaves and holotype cuticles to identify potential relationships to modern species of Orchidaceae.Compared morphological characters to previously known cladograms and modern specimens of suspected genera to identify location within Orchidaceae.
22 Using the Fossil Record Gustafsson et al. (2010)Reassessing the temporal evolution of orchids with new fossils and a Bayesian relaxed clock, with implications for the diversification of the rare South American genus Hoffmannseggella.Used the descriptions of fossils found by Ramirez (2007) and Conran et al. (2009) to look at the age of the evolution of Orchidaceae.Compared Bayesian relaxed clock in BEAST and PL in r8s methods of estimating clade age.Compared newly aged phylogenetic tree with ancient global climate data.
30 SummationWithout fossil evidence, orchid phylogenitic trees could only be based off of morphological characteristics of modern species.Fossil evidence provided information to place extant species within the trees of Orchidaceae and age orchid phylogeny.Orchids are much older than originally thought, with a most recent common ancestor in the Late Cretaceous period.Orchid diversification began in a period of global cooling, not global warming.