Presentation on theme: "Scaffold User Training"— Presentation transcript:
1 Scaffold User Training Supported ScaffoldsScaffold User Training
2 Scaffold Hazards The danger of falling is most common. Ladders and ScaffoldsScaffold HazardsThe danger of falling is most common.9% of construction deaths arescaffold-relatedScaffold falls injure 29,000workers every year.47% of all scaffold catastrophesand deaths are caused bydefective scaffolds.Any missing or defective part makes a scaffold less safe.
3 Ladders and Scaffolds15X & LSubpart L - Scaffolds: Scope, application and definitions: General requirementsCovers the basic variables: Specific requirementsFor each type of scaffold: Aerial lifts: TrainingAnyone who works from a scaffold or who erects scaffolds must have training.7
4 How Do We Know a Scaffold Is Safe? Supported scaffolds must have thesefeatures:
8 1926.450 definitions applicable to subpart Competent person means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are hazardous or dangerous to employees, and who has the authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.(CPL )
9 .451 General Requirements For All Scaffolds SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds17X & L.451 General Requirements For All Scaffolds(a) CapacitySupport its own weight and 4 X the Maximum Intended Load (MIL).Designed by a Qualified Person and built and loaded to design.Some Criteria listed in Appendix 'A'8
10 (b) Platform Construction SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds20X & L(b) Platform ConstructionPlatforms fully planked or deckedMaximum 1” gapsMaximum openings of 9½” if necessaryPlatforms and walkways minimum 18” wideGuardrails and/or Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS) for < 18” widePlanks laid at angles other than 90º laid first under planks laid over supports at 90 º9
17 (b)(3)14”MAX18”OR MUST HAVE GUARDRAILOR FALL PROTECTION
18 Platform Construction SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds27Platform ConstructionX & LDon’t paint wood, except ID on edgesFully planked between front upright & guardrailsDon’t mix scaffold components used unless compatible & strength is maintained [Competent Person decision]Don’t modify mixed scaffold componentsto make them fit [C.P. decision]No components of dissimilar metals without Competent Person approvalInspect, Inspect, Inspect12
19 Tie-Ins to the Building SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds30X & LTie-Ins to the BuildingThis 6-tier scaffold isis anchored to the buildingwith rope through windows.A solid strut anchor is better, especially if not dependent upon friction attachments at both ends.
20 1926.451 (c) Supported Scaffolds Guys, ties or braces required at the 4:1height ratioRepeated every 20 feet for scaffolds three feet wide or lessEvery 26 feet wider than three feetInstalled at each end of the scaffoldHorizontal spacing not to exceed 30 feet
23 Plumb, Level, Square You can visually check scaffold alignment. SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds34X & LPlumb, Level, SquareYou can visually check scaffold alignment.Plumb:Vertical members stand perpendicular to horizon.Square:Horizontal and vertical members form right angles where they connect.Level:Horizontal members are parallel to horizon.
24 Foundation and Load Distribution? SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds35X & LFoundation and Load Distribution?
25 Supported ScaffoldsBracing required to prevent tipping for all eccentric applied loadsScaffolds must bear on base plates and mud sills or other firm foundationFootings rigid with no settling or displacement
26 1926.451 General Requirements (c) Criteria for supported scaffolds (2) Base plates mud sills
27 1926.451 (c) Supported Scaffolds Unstable objects shall not be used to support scaffolds or platform units.Unstable objects shall not be used as working platforms.
29 1926.451 (c) Supported Scaffolds Poles, legs, posts, frames, and uprights plumb and braced
30 What’s the Best Way to Load the Scaffold? SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds37X & LWhat’s the Best Way to Load the Scaffold?Distribute loads evenly. Point load over uprights.Point Loading -When necessary, it should be done over uprights.Evenly distributed –A good practice!An unsafe practice!
31 (e) AccessScaffold more than two feet above or below a point of access ladders, stairs, ramps or other similar access providedNo cross braces for access!Hook on ladders positioned so as not to tip the scaffoldBottom rung within 24 inches of supporting levelOver 35 feet, rest levels every 35 feet
32 1926.451 (e) Access Hook-on ladders compatible with scaffold used Minimum rung width of 11 1/2 inchesRungs uniformly spaced16 3/4 inches maximum rung spacingSlip resistant treads on stairs and landings
34 1926.451 (e) Access Prefabricated scaffold access: specifically designed and constructed for use as ladder rungs;Have a rung length of at least 8 inchesUniformly spacedMax. spacing 16 3/4 inches** fixed ladders must have fall protection if lengthof climb is 24’ or greater.**** landing ‘rest’ platforms required on fixed ladders atmaximum intervals of 50’**
35 Use No loading in excess of intended or rated load Lean-to scaffolds prohibitedCP to inspect for defects each shiftDamaged scaffold repaired, replaced or braced
36 USE No makeshift devices to increase height SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds47X & LUSENo makeshift devices to increase heightThe 'Drywall Bucket Rule'No ladder to increase height except on 'large area' and:Side thrust countered, platform securedLadder legs on same platform & securedPlatforms not to deflect > 1/60 of span
37 UseNo moving of scaffolds with employees on them unless designed by PE for suchMust decend mobile scaffolds prior to moving, and lock casters when in position.Safe distance from electric lines:Insulated lines:Less than 300 volts = 3 feet300 volts to 50 kilovolts = 10 feetOver 50 kilovolts = 10 feet plus .4 inches for each additional kV; or twice the length of the line insulator but never less than 10 feet
38 UseScaffolds erected, moved, dismantled, or altered only under the supervision and direction of a competent person qualified in scaffoldsAccess scaffolds with snow/ice only to removeSwinging loads near scaffolds must use tag lines
39 Debris shall not be allowed to accumulate on platforms.
40 .454 Training Requirements SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds73X & L.454 Training RequirementsYour employer must train you.
41 Fall Protection Required at 10 foot height SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds48X & LFall ProtectionRequired at 10 foot heightPFAS instead of guardrails on someFall protection required when scaffold is greater than 14” away from work surfacePFAS for erectors/dismantlers where feasibleToprails height = 38” to 45”Crossbracing ‘X’ as top or midrail depending on height19
44 Guardrails Guardrails prevent work falls. SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds49X & LGuardrailsGuardrails prevent work falls.Only 33% of the scaffolds involved in accidents had guardrails.Ideal height is 38 inches above work platform.OSHA requires fall protection on platforms 10 feet or higher.Top rail must withstand a force of 200 pounds (or 100 pounds on suspension scaffolds).
45 (g) Fall ProtectionGuardrail systems shall be installed along all open sides and ends of platforms.Guardrail systems installed before scaffold is released for use by employees other than erection/dismantling crews.
46 (h) Falling Object Protection SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds53X & L(h) Falling Object ProtectionHardhats requiredProtect employees belowBarricades to exclude working belowToe boards at edges of platformsAllows panels and screensCanopies allowed20
47 Toeboard Options Using extra planks on edge: Job-made w/1"x 6" lumber: SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds54X & LToeboard OptionsUsing extra planks on edge:Wire in placeMaintain max. gap of ¼"Wire or nail ends in placeJob-made w/1"x 6" lumber:Wire/nail/cleat in placeLighter, easier to handle
48 Electrical Hazards Ladders and Scaffolds SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds54X & LElectrical HazardsScaffolds shall remain a minimum of 10 feet away from energized power lines.All power tools and equipment shall be plugged into a GFCITemporary lighting shall not be connected to the scaffold system by metal components
61 Fatal factBricklaying crew working on the upper floor of a three-story building built a six-foot platform spanning a gap between two scaffolds. The platform was correctly constructed of two 2”X12” planks with standard guardrails; however, one of the planks was not scaffold grade lumber and also had extensive dry rot in the center. when a bricklayer stepped on the plank it disintegrated and he fell 30 feet to his death.
62 Fatal factTwo employees were installing aluminum siding on a farm house when it became necessary to remove a 36-foot high metal pole CB antenna. One employee stood on a metal pick board between two ladders and unfastened the antenna at the top of the house. The other employee who was standing on the ground, took the antenna to lay it down in the yard. The antenna made electrical contact with a 7200-volt power transmission line 30 feet 10 inches from the house and 23 feet 9 inches above the ground. The employee handling the antenna received a fatal shock and the other employee a minor shock.
63 Protect Yourself With Good Practice SUBPARTSLadders and Scaffolds71X & LProtect Yourself With Good PracticeDon’t allow tools, materials, or debris to collect on scaffold.Never, never throw or drop tools, materials, or equipment.Make sure connections are in place and completely tight.Do not stand on ties.Do not stand on guardrails or plank extensions.Do not overreach outside of the guardrails.