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Nonnative Invasive Plants of Southern Forests

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Presentation on theme: "Nonnative Invasive Plants of Southern Forests"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nonnative Invasive Plants of Southern Forests
Field Guide by James H. Miller Presentation by Britta Dimick New Employee Orientation November 4, 2004

2 Agenda Presentation (<2 hours) invasive species introduction
FIA P2-monitoring of invasives invasive species in the South key characteristics ecology pressed specimens Field identification (2 hours) Test (1 hr)

3 Invasive Species nonnative, introduced to an ecosystem
introduction (potentially) causes economic or environment harm most arrived as ornamentals or for livestock forage without natural predators and disease that keep native plant populations in balance, they expand without competition or opposition reduce forest productivity hinder forest use for management or recreation activities diminish diversity, disturb wildlife habitats abundance, regional impact, range, and rate of spread are not well known; monitoring in necessary

4 P2 Invasive Species Data Collection
every subplot with accessible forest condition 4 most dominant invasive species (from most to least) 4 digit code for species; 1st digit indicates life form code for percent cover Southern Region Nonnative Invasive Plant List 33 species listed

5 Trees

6 Tree of Heaven (Alianthus altissima)
Leaves: 2’ pinnately compound leaf stalk with swollen base leaflets arranged sub-opposite circular glands under lobes at leaflet base Resembles: Sumac Ecology: Forms thickets Shade and flood tolerant

7 Mimosa (Albizia julibrissin)
Leaves: bipinnately compound leaflets <1” in length feathery/fern like appearance Stems: lenticels green-gray Resembles: Honey locust Ecology: Moist soil/stream banks open habitats

8 Princess Tree (Paulownia tomentosa)
Leaves: opposite, entire heart shaped, fuzzy hairs ± 10X10 inches Flowers and fruit: erect pink panicles fruit capsules persistent Resembles: Catalpa Ecology: Forms colonies Forest margins

9 Chinaberry (Melia azedarach)
Leaves: alternately whorled bipinnately compound leaflets serrated Resembles: Elderberry Ecology: forms colonies roadsides forest margins

10 Tallow Tree (Triadica sebifera)
Leaves: alternately whorled heart shaped, entire 1-3” petioles Ecology: wet ditches, streambanks, riverbanks, uplands sites

11 Russian Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia)
Leaves: deciduous, long lanceolate sparse silver scales above dense silver scales below Stems: thorny silver scales/smooth green-red Resembles: Thorny olive Autumn olive Ecology: forest margins forest openings

12 Shrubs

13 Thorny Olive (Elaeagnus pungens)
Leaves: evergreen, elliptic wavy margins silver scales above and below scattered brown scales below Stems: thorny brown, with brown scales Resembles: Russian olive, Autumn olive Ecology: scattered individuals occur in openings and in shade

14 Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata)
Leaves: deciduous, elliptic wavy margins pubescent, scale-less above dense silver scales below Stems: spur twigs common (thorny) grey-green, smooth, glossy Resembles: Russian olive, Thorny olive Ecology: individuals and stands occur in openings and in shade

15 Winged Burning Bush (Euonymus alata)
Leaves: Opposite, obovate, acute margins crenate turns bright red in fall Stems: 4 corky wings or ridges Resembles: Blueberry Ecology: shade tolerant forest understory, openings, and margins

16 (Ligustrum japonicum)
Chinese Privet (Ligustrum sinense) Japanese Privet (Ligustrum japonicum) Leaves: opposite, in 2 rows elliptic, entire, ±1” hairy midvein below Ecology: forms dense thickets along forest margins Leaves: opposite, leathery, 2-4” entire, margins yellow, margins turned upward Ecology: forms dense thickets along forest margins

17 Nandina (Nandina domestica)
Leaves: alternately whorled pinnately compound leaf base clasps stem, V notch leaflets attached at red tinged joint which segments stalk Ecology: forest understory, margins

18 Multifloral Rose (Rosa multiflora)
Plant: climbing, arching, or trailing recurved thorns Leaves: pinnately compound serrated leaflets leafstalk base clasping with bristles on margins Resembles: Carolina Rose Ecology: forms infestations forest margins

19 Amur Honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii)
Plant: shrub Leaves: opposite, ovate, acute entire Resembles: Japanese honeysuckle Ecology: dense thickets on roadsides, open forests, forest margins

20 Vines

21 Japanese Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica)
Leaves: opposite, in 2 rows, ovate entire, acute spring foliage lobed Stems: brown hairy, vine Resembles: Amur honeysuckle Yellow jassamine Ecology: most common invasive forest margins, openings forest understory and canopy

22 (Celastrus orbiculatus) (Dioscorea oppositifolia)
Oriental Bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus) Chinese Yam (Dioscorea oppositifolia) Leaves: alternate, ± 3” margins blunt toothed Resembles: American bittersweet Ecology: forest margins, roadside Leaves: heart shaped palmate veins, thornless Resembles: Greenbriar Ecology: forms dense thickets along forest margins

23 Common/Big Periwinkle
Wintercreeper (Euonymus fortunei) Common/Big Periwinkle (Vinca minor/major) Leaves: opposite, broadly oval margins crenate smooth, glossy Ecology: forms dense ground cover and climbs trees Leaves: opposite, narrow elliptic entire (<1” and >1.5”) smooth, glossy Ecology: forms dense thickets under forest canopies

24 Chinese/Japanese Wisteria (Wisteria sinensis/floribunda)
Leaves: alternate, odd pinnately compound Chinese – 7-13 leaflets Japanese – leaflets leaflets oval-elliptic, entire Resembles: Native wisterias Trumpet creeper Ecology: forms dense infestations wet to dry sites

25 English Ivy (Hedera helix) Kudzu (Pueraria montana)
Leaves: alternate, dark green entire, 0-5 lobes thick, waxy, smooth Ecology: moist open forest Leaves: trifoliate, alternate long tipped, slightly lobed leaflets Ecology: forms dense ground mats and invades the canopy

26 Grasses

27 Giant Reed (Arundo donax) Leaves: alternate, corn like,
clasping/whitish base Flowers: erect Stem: overlapping sheaths Resembles: common reed Ecology: uplands, roadsides forest margins

28 Chinese Silver Grass (Miscanthus sinensis)
Leaves: midvein white above and green ridged beneath margins rough Flowers: plumed panicle drooping reddish seeds in fall Ecology: forest margins roadsides disturbed sites

29 Golden Bamboo (Phyllostachys aurea)
Leaves: grass like, large hairs at base of petioles Stems: hollow, jointed canes, 1-6” in diameter, Ecology: escaped from old home sites, moist areas

30 Napalese Brown Top (Microstegium vimineum)
Leaves: midvein whitish and off-center Flowers: terminal, thin, raceme Stems: overlapping sheaths hairless nodes and internodes Ecology: moist areas

31 (Lolium arundinaceum) (Imperata cylindrica)
Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) Leaves: rising from the base sheaths overlap, hairy midvein off-center Seeds: silvery hairy husks Ecology: full sun, colony forming Leaves: basal, white flared collar Stems: swollen light green nodes Resembles: other grasses Ecology: forms extensive colonies

32 Japanese Climbing Fern (Lygodium japonicum)
Ferns Japanese Climbing Fern (Lygodium japonicum) Leaves: opposite on vine, compound, triangular outline Resembles: American climbing fern Ecology: open forests, forest margins, ROWs, dense mats

33 Forbs

34 Garlic Mustard (Allaria petiolata)
Leaves: early basal rosette kidney, heart, or triangle shaped margins coarsely toothed Ecology: floodplains forest understory forest openings forest margins

35 Chinese Lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata)
Leaves: alternate, crowded, numerous trifoliate, leaflets long/slender Flowers: white with purple markings Resembles: native lespedeza Ecology: forest openings, upland woods savannas, old fields, ROWs, forms infestations

36 Shrubby Lespedeza (Lespedeza bicolor)
Leaves: alternate, crowded, numerous trifoliate, leaflets elliptic Flowers: purple Resembles: native lespedeza Ecology: forest openings, upland woods savannas, old fields, ROWs, forms infestations

37 Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)
Leaves: ± 6 X 4 inches deeply lobed, velvety hairs thorns on veins and petiole Stems: 3-6 feet tall thorns Resembles: Horsenettle Ecology: open sites


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