Presentation on theme: "Biology 484 – Ethology Chapter 9 – Evolution of Communication."— Presentation transcript:
Biology 484 – Ethology Chapter 9 – Evolution of Communication
Chapter 9 Opener: When a bull elk bugles, other males listen Communication can be between individuals, groups, or even different species.
9.1 The pseudopenis of the female spotted hyena can be erected The female spotted hyena displays her pseudopenis in an erect state as a form of greeting ceremony.
9.2 Concentrations of testosterone in male and female spotted hyenas (Part 1)
9.2 Concentrations of testosterone in male and female spotted hyenas (Part 2)
9.3 A cost of the pseudopenis for female spotted hyenas The pseudopenis in the female may be helpful in certain species specific forms of communication, but it results in a high cost associated with reproduction.
9.4 Competition for food among spotted hyenas may favor highly aggressive individuals In a comparison of the extra androgen hypothesis and the aggression hypothesis, the aggression hypothesis is currently best supported.
9.5 Dominance greatly advances female reproductive success in the spotted hyena The higher the mother’s social status, the greater the survival of her offspring.
9.6 Ultrasonic communication The male whistling moth communicates via ultrasonic calls produced by striking hard, knobby “castanet” wing structures together.
9.7 Evolution of a sensory system The area of the sensory nerve labeled as “b1” shows the difference between the two moths. The saturniid “b1” innervates to relay information about the hindwing. The noctuid moth, which *can* hear, uses the “b1” to innervate to the tympanic membrane to conduct vibratory sound to the CNS.
9.8 Arthropod gills have evolved into many different structures with different functions (Part 1)
9.8 Arthropod gills have evolved into many different structures with different functions (Part 2)
9.9 Evolutionary precursors of insect wings? This extinct insect (a stonefly like insect) may be providing a clue to how the gill plates may have evolved into wings in many forms of insects.
9.10 A surface-skimming stonefly This particular species of stonefly displays wings, but the wings are not for flight in the traditional sense. Instead, it uses the wings somewhat like how we use a sail on a sailboat. It is used to capture wind and propel the insect along the surface.
9.11 A possible evolutionary pathway from swimming to full flight in the stoneflies Different species of stonefly with different possible velocities show a possible mechanism for evolution of flight.
9.15 A female cichlid fish (left) is attracted to the anal fin of a male by the orange spots on the fin
Parental Care Behaviors in the convict cichlid, Chiclosoma nigrofasciatum: Mouthing Spitting Finding Digging Feeding Aggressive Behavior to Mate Attack Conspecifics Fanning Hovering None of the Above
9.16 Food, carotenoids, and female mate preferences in the guppy
9.17 Sexual preferences for orange spots match foraging preferences by female guppies