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Presentation on theme: "ANATOMICAL POSITION & DIRECTIONAL TERMS"— Presentation transcript:

Sports Medicine 1

2 Anatomic Position Body erect Arms to side Palms forward
Head & neck forward

3 Body Planes Sagittal Medial/Mid-sagittal Coronal/Frontal Transverse
Sagittal: divides the body or organ vertically into right and left unequal parts Medial/Mid-sagittal: divides the body or organ vertically into equal right and left parts Coronal/Frontal: divides the body or organ vertically into anterior and posterior parts Transverse: divides the body or organ horizontally or into cranial/caudal parts

4 transverse coronal midsaggital

5 Primary Functions of Bone
Supports the soft tissues of the body so that the form of the body and an erect posture can be maintained Protects delicate structures Blood cell production- RBC, WBC, & platelets produced in red marrow Storage for calcium & phosphorus; reserve lipid in yellow marrow Lever system with muscles-directs forces generated by muscles

6 Classified by Shape Long bones: longer than wide, shaft with 2 ends (femur, humerus) Short bones: length equals width (carpals, tarsals) Flat bones: thin and flat (cranium, sternum, ribs, scapula) Irregular bones: complex shapes (vertebrae, middle ear bones) Sesamoid bones: small bones formed in tendons (patella)


8 The Skeleton The average human adult skeleton has 206 bones joined to ligaments and tendons Forms a protective and supportive framework for the attached muscles and the soft tissues which underlie it. Minor differences between male and female skeletons: men's bones tend to be larger and heavier than corresponding women's bones, and a woman's pelvic cavity is wider to accommodate childbirth.

9 Joint Types Ball and Socket
The greatest range of joint movement is provided by a "ball-and- socket" joint, in which the spherical head of one bone lodges in the spherical cavity of another

10 Joint Types: Hinge The simplest type of joint is the "hinge," as found in the elbows and the joints of the fingers and toes. Hinge joints allow movement in only one direction. Elbow

11 Joint Types: Pivot A pivot joint allows two bones to move in a rotational motion by twisting against each other The radio-ulnar joint in the elbow, or atlas/axis in the neck do this

12 Joint Types: Gliding Gliding" joints permit a wide range of mostly sideways movements - as well as movements in one direction The bones in the wrists and ankles slide against each other in a gliding motion The spine is a series of gliding joints


14 Joint movement: Extension
When two bones move away from each other, the action is known as EXTENSION This would occur for example with straightening of the elbow or knee

15 Joint movement: Abduction
When a joint moves away from the vertical centreline of the body, it is known as abduction. This movement occurs when the arm is raised to one side

16 Joint movement: Adduction
When a joint moves towards the vertical centreline of the body, it is known as adduction. This movement occurs when the arm is lowered

17 Joint movement: Rotation
This occurs when a bone rotates, either in a socket or relative to another bone. It can occur at ball & socket or gliding type joints Lowering (blue arrow) is internal rotation. Raising is external

18 Joint movement: Forward movement is flexion, (except the knee and elbow) Rearward movement is extension













31 Anatomical directions
Superior: nearer the head Inferior: nearer the feet Lateral: away from the midline Medial: towards the midline


33 Anatomical directions
Anterior: toward the front Posterior: toward the rear or back Proximal: nearer to the center Distal: farther from the center


35 Head Skull Frontal Parietals Temporals occipital
Maxilla (top jaw and face) Mandible (Lower Jaw)

36 Head - Cranium

37 Spine C1 – Atlas C2 – Axis Common HNP (slipped disc): L4/L5, L5/S1
Lumbar Cervical C1 – Atlas C2 – Axis Common HNP (slipped disc): L4/L5, L5/S1

38 Back Muscles (Superficial)

39 Back Muscles (Deep)

40 Thorax Ribs SC joint – danger if clavicle fracture AC joint

41 Thoracic Muscles

42 Shoulder – Bony Anatomy

43 Shoulder - Muscles Rotator Cuff S – Supraspinatus I – Infraspinatus
T – Teres minor S - Subscapularis

44 Shoulder Muscles Anterior View

45 Shoulder Injuries

46 Shoulder Injuries

47 Elbow

48 Elbow Musculature Tennis Elbow What causes tennis elbow???

49 Wrist and Hand 27 bones in the hand: the carpals or wrist account for 8; the metacarpals or palm contains 5; the remaining 14 are digital bones Carpal Bones (wrist)

50 Extensor and Flexor Muscles

51 Lower Extremity Femur – longest bone in body Patella – knee cap
Tibia – bears ~ 80% weight Fibula

52 Hip Joint Hip Flexor mm’s

53 Quadriceps Rectus Femoris Vastus Intermedialis Vastus Lateralis
Vastus Medialis

54 Knee ACL PCL MCL LCL Medial & Lateral Menisci

55 Knee Injuries – True “Knee” dislocation

56 Knee injuries – Patella dislocation

57 Lower Leg Gastrocnemius Medial and Lateral heads Soleus

58 Foot & Ankle 26 bones in foot (28 if count sesamoids)
Hindfoot: Calcaneus, Talus Midfoot: Navicular, Cuboid, 3 Cuneiforms (med, middle, lat) Forefoot: metatarsals (5), phalanges (2, 3, 3, 3, 3 = 14)

59 Ankle Dislocation


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