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Chapter 2: The Language of Anatomy

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1 Chapter 2: The Language of Anatomy

2 Anatomy Unit 2 Objectives:
TSWBAT verbally describe or demonstrate the anatomical position. TSWBAT use proper anatomical terminology to describe body directions, regions, surfaces and body planes TSWBAT locate the major body cavities, and list the chief organs in each cavity.

3 Superficial Anatomy Involves locating structures on or near the body surface Understanding anatomical landmarks, anatomical regions, and terms for anatomical directions will help you remember both the location of a structure and its name. For example; the brachium refers to the the arm and the brachialis muscle and the brachial artery are located in the arm.

4 Why have an anatomical position?
To prevent misunderstandings, anatomists use universally accepted terms to identify body structures precisely and with a minimum of words * It is important to remember that the terms “left” and “right” refer to those sides of the person being viewed – not those of the observer.

5 Anatomical Position 1. Body erect 2. Feet slightly apart 3. Palms facing forward 4. Thumbs point away from body 5. Similar to “standing at attention” Supine – person laying down in anatomical position face up Prone – face down Figure 1.7a

6 Table 1.1

7 Table 1.1

8 Check Point Create 4 examples using the directional terms.
Share/Check with a partner. Be prepared to discuss your examples.

9 Regional Terms: Anterior View
Figure 1.7a

10 Regional Terms: Posterior View
Figure 1.7b

11 Preparation for Pictionary
Place the board and envelope in a central location so all players have access to them Each team should have a playing piece, white board, markers, and paper towel Place playing pieces in the start square on the board Each team selects a picturist, one who will sketch clues for the first word Each team rolls the die; highest roll selects the first card The first word sketched is an ALL PLAY

12 THE PLAY The starting picturist selects a word card from the deck
The picturist has 5 seconds The timer is then turned and the picturist begins sketching clues for the team The picturist may not use verbal or physical communication to teammates during the round Sketches may not include letters or numbers Sketching and guessing continues until the word is identified or until time is up If a guess is correct, the team continues to play by rolling the die, advancing the number of squares, selecting a new card and new picturist If a word is not identified within the time limit, play continues to the left (pull a new card, do not roll)

13 THE PLAY continued All Play
The card is shown to the picturist of each team The word is sketched simultaneously by picturists to their respective teams The first team to identify the word earns control of the die, rolls the die, and continues with a turn If no team identifies the word, play continues to the left To Win The first team to land on the Finish square and guess the word correctly wins the game

14 Body Sections Sagittal – divides the body into right and left parts
Midsagittal or median- sagittal plane that lies on the midline

15 Body Sections Frontal/Coronal Section – Lengthwise plane that divides the body (or organ) into anterior and posterior

16 Body Sections Transverse/Cross Section – Cut along a horizontal plane dividing the body or organ into superior and inferior parts.

17 Body Planes Figure 1.8


19 Anatomical Variability
Humans vary slightly in both external & internal anatomy. Over 90% of all anatomical structures match textbook descriptions, but: - Nerves or blood vessels may be somewhat out of place - Small muscles may be missing Extreme anatomical variations are seldom seen . . .

20 But it does happen…

21 Body Cavities Dorsal Body Cavity Ventral Body Cavity
1. Cranial Cavity – Brain 2. Vertebral Cavity – Spinal cord & nerve origins Ventral Body Cavity 1. Thoracic Cavity – Chest cavity A. Pleural Cavity – Lungs B. Pericardial Cavity – Heart C. Mediastinum 2. Abdominopelvic Cavity A. Abdominal – stomach, spleen, gallbladder, liver, pancreas, small & large intestines B. Pelvic – bladder, portions of large intestines, sex organs


23 Body Cavities The Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisions: Cranial cavity is within the skull and encases the brain Vertebral cavity runs within the vertebral column and encases the spinal cord

24 Body Cavities Ventral cavity houses the internal organs and is divided into two subdivisions: Thoracic Abdominopelvic

25 The Thoracic cavity is subdivided into :
Body Cavities The Thoracic cavity is subdivided into : Pleural cavities – each houses a lung Mediastinum – contains the pericardial cavity, and surrounds the remaining thoracic organs Pericardial cavity – encloses the heart

26 Body Cavities The abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the dome-shaped diaphragm Two subdivisions: Abdominal cavity – contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs Pelvic cavity – lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum

27 Ventral Body Cavity Membranes
Parietal serosa lines internal body walls Visceral serosa covers the internal organs Serous fluid separates the serosae

28 Ventral Body Cavity Membranes
Figure 1.10a

29 Other Body Cavities 1. Oral and digestive – mouth and cavities of the digestive organs 2. Nasal - located within and posterior to the nose 3. Orbital – house the eyes 4. Middle ear – contain bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations 5. Synovial – joint cavities

30 Other Body Cavities

31 Abdominopelvic Quadrants
Right upper Left upper Right lower Left lower Figure 1.12

32 Abdominopelvic Regions
Umbilical Epigastric Hypogastric Right and left iliac or inguinal Right and left lumbar Right and left hypochondriac Figure 1.11a

33 Organs of the Abdominopelvic Regions
Figure 1.11b



36 X-ray Technology Uses electromagnetic radiation to make images
Used to look for broken bones, problems in your lungs and abdomen, cavities in your teeth, tumors, etc.


38 MRI – Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Imaging test that uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create pictures of the body The area of the body being studied is placed inside a special machine that contains a strong magnet It is used to find problems such as tumors, bleeding, injury, blood vessel diseases or infection Usually takes minutes


40 CT – Computed tomography
Scan uses x-rays to make detailed pictures of structures inside of the body Each rotation of the scanner provides a picture of a thin slice of the organ or area Can be used to study all parts of your body May be used to make sure a procedure is done correctly

41 Ultrasound Uses high-frequency sound waves to look at organs and structures inside the body Used to view the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, liver, and other organs During pregnancy, doctors use ultrasound tests to examine the fetus Uses a device called a transducer over part of the body; sends out sound waves, which bounces off the tissues inside your body; images are created from the waves

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