2 Anatomy Unit 2 Objectives: TSWBAT verbally describe or demonstrate the anatomical position.TSWBAT use proper anatomical terminology to describe body directions, regions, surfaces and body planesTSWBAT locate the major body cavities, and list the chief organs in each cavity.
3 Superficial AnatomyInvolves locating structures on or near the body surfaceUnderstanding anatomical landmarks, anatomical regions, and terms for anatomical directions will help you remember both the location of a structure and its name.For example; the brachium refers to the the arm and the brachialis muscle and the brachial artery are located in the arm.
4 Why have an anatomical position? To prevent misunderstandings, anatomists use universally accepted terms to identify body structures precisely and with a minimum of words* It is important to remember that the terms “left” and “right” refer to those sides of the person being viewed – not those of the observer.
5 Anatomical Position1. Body erect 2. Feet slightly apart 3. Palms facing forward 4. Thumbs point away from body 5. Similar to “standing at attention” Supine – person laying down in anatomical position face up Prone – face downFigure 1.7a
11 Preparation for Pictionary Place the board and envelope in a central location so all players have access to themEach team should have a playing piece, white board, markers, and paper towelPlace playing pieces in the start square on the boardEach team selects a picturist, one who will sketch clues for the first wordEach team rolls the die; highest roll selects the first cardThe first word sketched is an ALL PLAY
12 THE PLAY The starting picturist selects a word card from the deck The picturist has 5 secondsThe timer is then turned and the picturist begins sketching clues for the teamThe picturist may not use verbal or physical communication to teammates during the roundSketches may not include letters or numbersSketching and guessing continues until the word is identified or until time is upIf a guess is correct, the team continues to play by rolling the die, advancing the number of squares, selecting a new card and new picturistIf a word is not identified within the time limit, play continues to the left (pull a new card, do not roll)
13 THE PLAY continued All Play The card is shown to the picturist of each teamThe word is sketched simultaneously by picturists to their respective teamsThe first team to identify the word earns control of the die, rolls the die, and continues with a turnIf no team identifies the word, play continues to the leftTo WinThe first team to land on the Finish square and guess the word correctly wins the game
14 Body Sections Sagittal – divides the body into right and left parts Midsagittal or median- sagittal plane that lies on the midline
15 Body SectionsFrontal/Coronal Section – Lengthwise plane that divides the body (or organ) into anterior and posterior
16 Body SectionsTransverse/Cross Section – Cut along a horizontal plane dividing the body or organ into superior and inferior parts.
19 Anatomical Variability Humans vary slightly in both external & internal anatomy.Over 90% of all anatomical structures match textbook descriptions, but:- Nerves or blood vessels may be somewhat out of place- Small muscles may be missingExtreme anatomical variations are seldom seen . . .
23 Body CavitiesThe Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisions:Cranial cavity is within the skull and encases the brainVertebral cavity runs within the vertebral column and encases the spinal cord
24 Body CavitiesVentral cavity houses the internal organs and is divided into two subdivisions:ThoracicAbdominopelvic
25 The Thoracic cavity is subdivided into : Body CavitiesThe Thoracic cavity is subdivided into :Pleural cavities – each houses a lungMediastinum – contains the pericardial cavity, and surrounds the remaining thoracic organsPericardial cavity – encloses the heart
26 Body CavitiesThe abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the dome-shaped diaphragmTwo subdivisions:Abdominal cavity – contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organsPelvic cavity – lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
27 Ventral Body Cavity Membranes Parietal serosa lines internal body wallsVisceral serosa covers the internal organsSerous fluid separates the serosae
29 Other Body Cavities1. Oral and digestive – mouth and cavities of the digestive organs 2. Nasal - located within and posterior to the nose 3. Orbital – house the eyes 4. Middle ear – contain bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations 5. Synovial – joint cavities
38 MRI – Magnetic Resonance Imaging Imaging test that uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create pictures of the bodyThe area of the body being studied is placed inside a special machine that contains a strong magnetIt is used to find problems such as tumors, bleeding, injury, blood vessel diseases or infectionUsually takes minutes
40 CT – Computed tomography Scan uses x-rays to make detailed pictures of structures inside of the bodyEach rotation of the scanner provides a picture of a thin slice of the organ or areaCan be used to study all parts of your bodyMay be used to make sure a procedure is done correctly
41 UltrasoundUses high-frequency sound waves to look at organs and structures inside the bodyUsed to view the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, liver, and other organsDuring pregnancy, doctors use ultrasound tests to examine the fetusUses a device called a transducer over part of the body; sends out sound waves, which bounces off the tissues inside your body; images are created from the waves